2 The Compromise of 1850 didn t end the debate over slavery in the U. S. It was again a key issue as Americans chose their president in Franklin Pierce Democrat Winfield Scott Whig John Hale Free Soil
4 Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire Our 14 th President He was a northerner, but he sympathized with the South over the slavery issue. He lost his popularity in the north after supporting the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
5 The Pierces faced many tragedies. Their oldest child only lived 3 days. Their second little boy died at age 4 from Typhus, and their third boy died at age 11, just two months before his dad took the oath of office to become President. Sadly, he was decapitated in a train accident. First Lady Jane Appleton Pierce
6 The Kansas-Nebraska Act Americans had hoped the Compromise of 1850 would end the debate over slavery in the western territories. It did not. However, more problems arose when the issue of setting up a government for Nebraska was discussed. Nebraska was a huge region that went from Texas to Canada.
7 Stephen Douglas, a Senator from Illinois, knew Southerners did not want to add another free state into the union. He proposed dividing the region into two territories called Nebraska and Kansas. Settlers in each territory would decide the issue of slavery using popular sovereignty.
9 Undoing the Missouri Compromise Some said this was fair because it was to be used in Utah and New Mexico. Others said it was bad because the Missouri Compromise had already banned slavery there. Southerners were in favor of it, because they hoped Kansas would become a slave state. Franklin Pierce, the Democratic president, supported the act, and it passed becoming a law.
10 Northerners Were Furious Some northerners were outraged that slavery could now possibly move into areas where it had been banned for more than 30 years. They protested by testing the Fugitive Slave Law. In some cities like Boston, they tried to prevent slave catchers from taking runaway slaves back to the South.
11 Posters Protesting Slave Catching
12 In the mid-1850 s pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces battled for control of Kansas. One observer described an election day in Kansas: On the morning of the election, before the polls were opened, some 300 or 400 Missourians and others were collected in the yard where the election was to be held, armed with bowie-knives, revolvers, and clubs. They said they came to vote, and whip the Yankees, and would vote without being sworn. Some said they came to fight, and wanted one.
13 Kansas Explodes in Violence Anti and pro-slavery people rushed into the Kansas Territory. Many came for the cheap, available land. Pro-slavery forces wanted to make sure the anti-slavery people did not control Kansas. Border Ruffians rode in from Missouri.
14 Border Ruffians were trouble-makers from Missouri who tried to make sure the territory became slave holding. To this day, there still is a big rivalry between the two states.
15 In 1855, hundreds of Border Ruffians voted illegally and elected a pro-slavery legislature. They passed laws that supported slavery. One gave the death penalty to people who helped slaves escape. Anti-slavery forces refused to accept these laws and elected their own legislature.
16 Bleeding Kansas In 1856, pro-slavery forces raided the town of Lawrence, an anti-slavery stronghold. They destroyed homes and smashed a newspaper press. John Brown, an abolitionist, his four sons, and two other men went to a town called Pottawatomie Creek. They drug 5 men out of their beds and murdered them.
17 John Brown A famous abolitionist
18 By late in the year 1856, there had been more than 200 people killed in the violence. Newspapers started referring to Kansas as Bleeding Kansas.
19 Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts was critical of the situation, and also criticized another senator from South Carolina named Andrew Butler. Bloodshed in the Senate Butler s nephew, Congressman Preston Brooks, marched into the Senate and beat Senator Sumner with a cane until he fell bloody and unconscious.
20 Charles Sumner, Andrew Butler, and Preston Brooks
21 To show support for Congressman Brooks, hundreds of Southerners sent him canes! With congress in such an uproar, many people thought the Supreme Court could help settle the slavery issue and hopefully restore peace. The Supreme Court ended up causing even more contention between the North and the South.
22 The Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott, a slave, had lived with his owner for many years in Missouri.
23 Later, he lived in Illinois and Wisconsin where slavery was not allowed. After going back to Missouri, Dred s owner died, but he was still owned by the master s widow. Anti-slavery lawyers helped him file a lawsuit. They argued that because he had lived in free territories where slavery was not permitted, he should be a free man.
24 Eventually, Dred Scott s case went all the way to the Supreme Court. The Court s ruling shocked many Americans. First, they said Scott should never have been able to sue, because as a black, he was not a citizen. Second, they agreed that slaves were property.
25 The Court didn t stop there. They went on to say that Congress did not have the authority to outlaw slavery anywhere. Many Southerners were overjoyed. For years they had considered slaves to be property, and wanted slavery to be allowed everywhere. Many northerners were shocked and upset. Tensions become even greater.
26 By the mid-1850 s, people who opposed slavery were looking for a strong political voice. Free Soilers, Democrats, and Whigs met in cities across the North. In 1854, the Republican party was formed in Michigan. The party grew quickly, and by 1856, was ready to challenge the older political parties for power.
27 Some people argue that the political party started in Wisconsin. Along with the older Democrat party, it dominates modern U. S. politics.
28 The Republican Party At first, the party was founded to stop the spread of slavery. However, some Republicans were abolitionists. In the 1856 presidential election, they selected the frontiersman John C. Fremont as their candidate. He didn t have a lot of experience, but he opposed the spread of slavery.
29 James Buchanan, John C. Fremont, and Millard Fillmore
30 Republicans marched through the streets singing Fremont s campaign song: Arise, arise ye brave! And let our war-cry be, Free speech, free press, free soil, free men, Fremont and victory! At this time the Whig party was extremely weak and about to die out. Fremont s main opponent was Democrat James Buchanan.
31 The American-Know Nothing-Whig group was basically a movement that was nativist, and anti-irish and German. It didn t last long.
32 Buchanan was a northerner from Pennsylvania, but he sympathized with the southern position on slavery. Supported by most southerners and many northerners, Buchanan won the election to become our 15 th president. However, the Republicans did well for a new party. Southerners were worried about the success of this anti-slavery party.
33 Abraham Lincoln of Illinois The Republicans next big challenge came in Republican Abe Lincoln was challenging the Democrat Stephen Douglas for his seat in the Senate. This election captured the attention of the whole nation because many people thought Stephen Douglas would run for president in 1860.
34 Lincoln was born in the backcountry of Kentucky. Later, he moved to Indiana and spent most of his life in Illinois.
35 He lost his mother at an early age, and his father re-married. As a child, Lincoln spent only a year in school. Abe would borrow books from neighbors, and he taught himself to read, and spent hours reading by firelight.
36 After Lincoln left home, he opened a store in Illinois. There he studied law, and launched a career in politics. He served 8 years in the state legislature, and then one term in Congress. Bitterly opposed to 1854 s Kansas-Nebraska Act, he decided to run for the Senate in 1858.
37 People in Illinois knew and liked him. To them, he was just folks a person who enjoyed picnics, wrestling contests, and other favorite pastimes. They admired his honesty, wit, and plainspoken manner. Once he replied, There are always some fleas a dog can t reach, when someone complained they couldn t understand one of his speeches.
38 Lincoln kicked off his campaign at the Old Illinois Capitol Building in Springfield on June 16, It was here he spoke his famous words about a house divided against itself.
39 The Lincoln-Douglas Campaign Stephen Douglas was known as the Little Giant because he stood only 5 feet tall. However, he had a powerful presence, and was a good speaker.
40 On the train he used to campaign, a flat car carried a cannon. When the campaign got close to a town, young men in uniform would fire the cannon. People from miles around knew that Senator Douglas was coming to town. Politics and campaigning were a great form of entertainment to people in the mid 19 th century.
41 Lincoln knew that on his own, he would never draw as big of crowds that Douglas did. To solve this problem, he sometimes followed Douglas around on the same train and gave his own speeches. To get even more attention, Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of very famous debates throughout the campaign.
43 The Lincoln-Douglas Debates During the campaign, the candidates held 7 different debates to discuss the current issues. In one debate, before 10,000 people, Douglas accused Lincoln of being a hot-headed abolitionist who wanted blacks and whites to be equals and socialize. He warned that trying to totally end slavery would lead to war.
44 Lincoln stood 6 4, while Douglas stood at 5.
45 He believed that popular sovereignty was the best way to decide the slavery issue. Although he personally disliked slavery, he didn t care which way people voted. Lincoln replied that if slavery was wrong, it could not be ignored, and if it was evil, it should be kept out of the territories. Like many whites at the time, he didn t believe in total equality. He did believe that:
46 There is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights [listed] in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. I hold that he is as much entitled to these as the white man In the right to eat the bread which his own hand earns, he is my equal and the equal of Judge Douglas, and the equal of every living man.
47 The Results In those days, state legislatures picked a state s senators. For weeks, newspapers reprinted their speeches. Many northerners started to agree with Lincoln. Lincoln narrowly lost the election, but gained national fame. This would not be the last time the two would run against each other.
48 Why did Abraham Lincoln grow a beard two years later? Here is a possible explanation why: why-did-lincoln-grow-a-beard-
Day 6: Kansas-Nebraska Act (90-120 minutes) Materials to Distribute Kansas-Nebraska Act Text Sheet America Label-me Map 1854 Futility versus Immortality Activity Come to Bleeding Kansas Abolitonist billboard
The United States Expands West 1820s 1860s President Martin van Buren - #8 Democrat (VP for Jackson s 2 nd term) In office 1837-1841 Promised to continue many of Jackson s policies Firmly opposed the American
1861-1865 What caused America to go to war with itself? the most common answers are Slavery Failure of compromise The battle between states rights and federal authority Other answers include blaming the
Andrew Jackson decided to retire Martin van Buren was hand picked by Jackson to be the Democratic Candidate Was Jackson s 2 nd vice President From New York Whigs ran several favorite son candidates They
John Brown was a radical abolitionist from the United States, who advocated and practiced armed insurrection as a means to abolish slavery for good. President Abraham Lincoln said he was a misguided fanatic
The Assassination of Lincoln HS311 Activity Introduction Hi, I m (name.)today, you ll learn all about the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. It s not a real happy topic but this event had a pretty big impact
Career Abraham Lincoln Studied law Served in the military Once was a boat captain. He briefly worked as assistant pilot of the Talisman, a Mississippi River boat Studied law Served in the military Once
MILLARD FILLMORE: A REVIEW Over the past several years, Millard Fillmore has no longer been ranked as one of the worst five President in history; the goal of my book is to knock him back down as one of
Abraham Lincoln in His Time and Ours Abraham Lincoln and Jacksonian Democracy by Sean Wilentz Abraham Lincoln was, for most of his political career, a highly partisan Whig. As long as the Whig Party existed,
American History Unit 10: Age of Jacksonian Politics The Age of Jackson I. Andrew Jackson, known as "Old Hickory" A. Hero of the War of 1812 (Battle of New Orleans) B. Famous Indian fighter (The Seminoles
Remember the Alamo! The Making of a Nation Program No. 47 Andrew Jackson Part Two From VOA Learning English, welcome to The Making of a Nation, our weekly program of American history for people learning
CHAPTER 13 THE AGE OF JACKSON Election of 1824! Four candidates all Republican! All nominated in different ways (states, party caucus)! John Q. Adams - Sec. of State! Henry Clay - Speaker of the House!
Brandon Nguyen A-Z A is for Assassinated Abraham Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865 when he and his wife went to Ford Theatre. He got shot in the head by someone and died. B is for Birth Abraham
Civil War Lesson #5: Lincoln s Speeches Major Topics: Review of the Declaration of Independence Lincoln s Address to the Illinois Republican Convention (the House Divided Speech) Lincoln s First Inaugural
ELEMENTARY SPEECH BIBLE MEMORIZATION SAMPLER 2017/18 Contents Important Information 3 Bible Memorization 4 Bible Memorization Sampler 2017/18 2 2017, Association of Christian Schools International Bible
Jacksonian Era: 1824-1840 The Age of the Common Man A Time of Great Change The age of Jackson was marked by an increase in political participation, an increase in the power of the president and a distrust
Chapter 12 Democracy in the Age of Jackson (1824-1840) (American Nation Textbook Pages 358-375) 1 1. A New Era in Politics The spirit of Democracy, which was changing the political system, affected American
Polk and Territorial Ambition H1095 Activity Introduction Hey! Today we re talking about the polka and a terrestrial coalition! Wait, what? Oh whoops scratch that, folks Today we re talking about a guy
Mr. Cegielski DEMS Martin Van Buren 1 Van Buren Taking the Blame for His Own and Jackson's Monetary Policies DEMS Richard Mentor Johnson, VP 2 WHIGS William Henry Harrison WHIGS John Tyler, VP 3 Tippecanoe,
Jefferson Davis President of the Confederacy Compiled by D. A. Sharpe Jefferson Finis Davis served as president of the Confederate States of America during the War Between the States. He has been called
Freedom s Struggle i ii Freedom s Struggle On the cover: This 1983 illustration by artist Hugh Brown depicts a dragoon escorting a wagon train across the prairie. The wagon ruts that remain today at such
Chapter 2: Historical Overview of Independence In this chapter you will find: A Brief History of the HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF INDEPENDENCE Photograph on cover page: Independence County Courthouse remodeled
Collection # F0562 LAWRENCE B. CARTER NOTEBOOKS, N.D. Collection Information Biographical Sketch Scope and Content Note Contents Cataloging Information Processed by Wilma L. Moore December 2012 Manuscript
John Brown & the raid on harpers ferry Differentiated reading passages A Note From The Seller: I have found that integrating whenever and wherever possible is a great way to make sure that I am addressing
Routes to the West Unit Objective: examine the cause and effects of Independence Movements west & south of the United States; investigate and critique U.S. expansionism under the administrations of Van
#11. (152014) 3B ISN 5 22 23 Colonial Society Class Like today, class differences existed Gentry (top of society)- wealthy planters, merchants, ministers, successful lawyers, and royal officials. Middle
The New Republic Unit Test Form A MULTIPLE CHOICE For each of the following, write the letter of the best choice in the space provided. 1. What happened during the Bear Flag Revolt? a. A union of Spanish
DIRECTIONS: Eureka it s party time! Have you ever wondered what it would be like to party with your favorite Civil War Era personalities? Well now is your chance to find out just how hip and how cool history
The Korean War A classroom play by Team HOPE Cast List Douglas MacArthur ()..U.S. General Harry Truman (). President of the United States Elijah Lovejoy ().... anchor of The History News Report Margaret
CHAPTER 1 Tomorrow s champion Muhammad Ali was born on 17th January, 1942, and his parents named him Cassius Clay Jr. He had one younger brother, named Rudolph. Their mother, Odessa Clay, worked hard to
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Fourth Debate: Charleston, Illinois September 18, 1858 Eleven railroad cars of people from Indiana were among the approximately 12,000 in attendance. Answering Douglas' charge made
The Civil War Timeline Cards Introduction By 1619, tobacco was the chief crop grown in Jamestown. Introduction By the 1660s, enslaved people were brought from Africa to grow tobacco in North America. CHAPTER
Wilbur Family Papers, 1830-1923 Doc 469-470, MSA 269 Introduction This collection contains family letters of Vermont lawyer and historian LaFayette Wilbur (1834-1918), his wife Mercy Jane Morse Wilbur,
- 261 James Buchanan and the Political Crisis of the 1850s: A Panel Discussion Moderated by Michael J. Birkner Gettysburg College Editor's note: For two days in Septenmbel; 1991, Franklin & Marshall College
Zachary Taylor by Nathan Shepard I. Father Richard Taylor A. Fought in the revolutionary war B. Received 8,166 acres of land in Kentucky from government as a bonus for fighting against England C. He was
WOMEN OF BLEEDING KANSAS A Thesis by Leigh Jackson Master of Arts, Wichita State University, 2008 Submitted to the Department of History and the faculty of the Graduate School of Wichita State University
By Alexei Krindatch Standing Conference of the Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas The data is now available from the 2010 US Orthodox Christian Census which was completed as a part of the national
Andrew Jackson s Presidency THE JACKSONIAN ERA 7th President Known as The Common Man s President Old Hickory King Andrew Hero of the Battle of New Orleans Did NOT like Native Americans Era of the Common
K- -js"^-';^"- How Abraham Lincoln Became President ^nimti By J. McCan Davis Centennial Edition 1809-1909 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY MEMORIAL the Class of 1901 founded by HARLAN HOYT HORNER and HENRIETTA
TEXAS REVOLUTION The War Begins! By 1835, many Texans were upset with the Mexican government because of Santa Anna s actions Fearing trouble, Mexican general Domingo de Ugartechea, ordered the people of
The Life of Frederick Douglass 1701 Bailey, presumed great-great-grandfather of Frederick, born. 1745, December Jenny, great-grandmother of Frederick, born on Skinner Plantation. 1774, May Betsey, grandmother
1 Introduction On March 4, 1861, the day Abraham Lincoln was first sworn into office as President of the United States, the Chicago Tribune printed this special pamphlet of his First Inaugural Address.
Abraham Lincoln BIOGRAPHY WORKBOOK ABRAHAM LINCOLN (1809-1865) Born in obscurity and poverty, with health and a good disposition as a heritage from nature, and with good parents as teachers and guides,
The Battle of the Alamo A Reading A Z Level V Leveled Reader Word Count: 1,909 LEVELED READER V The Battle of the Alamo Written by David L. Dreier Illustrated by Cende Hill Visit www.readinga-z.com for
Chapter #5: Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution Big Picture Themes 1. The Americans were very diverse for that time period. New England was largely from English background, New York was Dutch, Pennsylvania
Chapter 9: Expanding Markets and Moving West Section 1: The Market Revolution *Samuel F. B. Morse- built an electromagnetic telegraph that could send signals through copper wire. This established new communications
Chapter 8 Objectives Describe the Second Great Awakening. Explain why some religious groups suffered from discrimination in the mid-1800s. Trace the emergence of the utopian and Transcendentalist movements.
Bowling Green State University ScholarWorks@BGSU HIST 4800 Boston (Herndon) HIST 4800 Fall 12-2013 From Border Ruffian to Abolitionist Martyr: William Lloyd Garrison s Changing Ideologies on John Brown
Scipio Africanus Kenner Scipio Africanus Kenner was born 14 May 1846 in Saint Francisville, Clark, Missouri. He was the oldest of four children of Foster Ray Kenner and Sarah Catherine Kirkwood. He was
Andrew Jackson becomes President Andrew Jackson Presidency Timeline Directions: 1.Read each slide 2.Summarize by answering the questions 3.Write vocabulary words on page 54 Expanded Voting rights to the
Not Yours to Give Colonel David Crockett; Compiled by Edward S. Elli One day in the House of Representatives, a bill was taken up appropriating money for the benefit of a widow of a distinguished naval
The BIG In what ways did Idaho grow and change in the late 1800s? Idaho Territory Grows This is Lewiston around 1900. What do you think is different about Lewiston today? 1874 The Utah and Northern Railroad
THE LIFE, DEATH AND LEGACY OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN...he ll never come to much, fur I ll tell you he wuz the puniest, cryin est little youngster I ever saw. Said by Dennis Hanks, a first cousin of Nancy Hanks
LESSON 4: LIFE AS PRESIDENT Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum GRADE LEVEL 5-8 WWW.PRESIDENTLINCOLN.ORG INTRODUCTION incoln s years in the White House proved particularly challenging. Faced
TRIBUTF. TO GENERAL ALFRED DOCKERY Meredith College Founders' Day February 26, 1982 As an immediate past trustee of the college, I appreciate Meredith's sensitivity to the importance of heritage; and as
Jacksonian Era and the Rise of Mass Democracy America 1824 to 1860 The Election of 1824: The Corrupt Bargain Candidate Popular Vote Electoral Vote Andrew Jackson 43% 99 J.Q. Adams 31% 32 William Crawford
Lösungen 1 Present tenses Seite 2 3 1 Stereotypes of England 1 always rains; 2 Is it raining; 3 is shining; 4 wear; 5 see; 6 are wearing; 7 usually drink; 8 are drinking; 9 are; 10 always stand; 11 are
THE COURIER Northeast Ohio Civil War Round Table Tuesday October 9th, 2012 Meeting #129 Dino s Restaurant at I90 & State Rt. 306 Willoughby, Ohio Canteen at 6:00 Dinner at 7:00 Guests are Welcome Speaker:
Westward Expansion & America s Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny Term first coined by newspaper editor, John O Sullivan in 1845... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole
The Text That Saved My Life By: Jackie Boratyn I was 16 he was 16 this had to be a dream. There I was sitting in the theater of Illinois State University watching the all-state theater performance of some
Proper 24 C 2016 Let s be very clear right from the start, that the widow was not badgering the judge for something she particularly wanted and Jesus isn t saying that about prayer, either. The widow was
The Mormon Disfranchisements of 1882 to 1892 The Mormon Disfranchisements of 1882 to 1892 Joseph H. Groberg A flurry of anti-mormon lawmaking from 1882 to 1892 was designed to disfranchise most Mormons
Romans 15:14-16:27 Paul s Heart Part Two 8/15/12 Introduction The Content of Romans is not hard to understand o As long as you remember it is helpful to compare the content of Romans to a great theological
Civic Participation (Persuasion) Middle School This unit is designed to promote civic involvement within the political process. The unit can be utilized to make students aware of the manner in which political
Rev. Linda Simmons Abraham Lincoln and Memorial Day May 28, 2017 Abraham Lincoln is a figure larger than life and also one so burdened by life that his photos and sculptures show him weighed down by it.
Skit #1: Order and Security Friend #1 Friend #2 Robber Officer Two friends are attacked by a robber on the street. After searching for half an hour, they finally find a police officer. The police officer
Matthew 27-11-26 What to do with Jesus? Sermon introduction: On Friday January 20 th at noon Donald Trump will be sworn in as the 45 th president of the United States. He will take the oath of office by
1 SERMON Exodus 2:23-25; 3:1-15; 4:1-17 First Lutheran Church Rev. Darrell J. Pedersen Aitkin, Minnesota October 1, 2017 We are so fortunate that we live in a free country where we can speak our minds,
The Bystander Effect Julius Palma Mrs. Forrest Honors English II March 7, 2013 The Bystander Effect Palma1 Imagine this, you and several friends are waiting at BART, heading for San Francisco for a parade,
Who was Abraham Lincoln? Overview Students will participate in a kinesthetic activity in which they review various quotes by and regarding Abraham Lincoln, discussing the various ideas and attitudes exhibited
Hillary Clinton, National Building Museum, Washington, 7 giugno 2008 Well, this isn't exactly the party I'd planned, but I sure like the company. And I want to start today by saying how grateful I am to
JANIS JORDAN Bully s Restaurant Jackson, MS * * * Date: April 11, 2014 Location: Bully s Restaurant, Jackson, MS Interviewer: Mary Beth Lasseter Transcription: Shelley Chance, ProDocs Length: 18 minutes
(Picture 1) (Picture 2) (Picture 3) (Picture 4) True Missions Story Hey, Teachers! The manual on data DVD contains PowerPoint presentations for the True Missions Stories with audio built in! For more information,
What Lawyers Can Learn About Professionalism from Atticus Finch Texas Land Title Institute December 2 3, 2010 Talmage Boston Winstead PC 5400 Renaissance Tower 1201 Elm Street Dallas, Texas 75270 214.745.5462
The young women of today free to study, to speak, to write, to choose their occupation should remember that every inch of this freedom was bought for them at a great price... the debt that each generation
M01_COPI1396_13_SE_C01.QXD 10/10/07 9:48 PM Page 30 30 CHAPTER 1 Basic Logical Concepts deductive arguments about probabilities themselves, in which the probability of a certain combination of events is
Essential Question: Champion of the Common Man? OR King Andrew? Voting Requirements in the Early 19c Voter Turnout: 1820-1860 1 Why Increased Democratization? 3 White male suffrage increased 3 Party nominating
Survey of Exodus by Duane L. Anderson Survey of Exodus A study of the book of Exodus for Small Group or Personal Bible Study American Indian Bible Institute Box 511 Norwalk, California 90651-0511 www.aibi.org
PRUEBAS DE ACCESO A LA UNIVERSIDAD FASE GENERAL: MATERIAS COMUNES MATERIA: INGLÉS CURSO 2009-2010 CONVOCATORIA: MATERIA: INGLÉS La prueba de Lengua Extranjera: INGLÉS consta de dos opciones (A y B). El
GUIDE TO THE SAXTON FAMILY PAPERS The Saxton Family Papers, received as gifts to the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association from various sources, consist of approximately 120 items. These are papers of,
Grammar 5.1 Capitalizing People and Cultures; Capitalizing First Words and Titles Main Ideas Capitalize people s names and initials Capitalize titles and abbreviations of titles when they are used before