1 Routes to the West Unit Objective: examine the cause and effects of Independence Movements west & south of the United States; investigate and critique U.S. expansionism under the administrations of Van Buren, Harrison, Tyler, & Polk.
2 Routes to the West Map Exercise If you don t have a copy of the Map titled Routes West and Territory Expansion you can print the next slide (slide #3) You will need a lot of color pencils Follow the instructions which show the main trails followed by people traveling to the Southwest, Oregon, and California during the early and mid-1800s.
3 Routes West and Territory Expansion Map Instructions: As you view the PowerPoint Presentation lesson on U.S. Territorial Expansion, use the information to complete the key and color the map Year Territory Year Territory Year Territory 1776 Original 13 States
4 Routes to the West Print the following place names next to the corresponding numbers: 1: Independence 2: Nauvoo 3: Fort Kearney 4: Fort Laramie 5: Independence Rock 6: Fort Bridger 7: Salt Lake City 8: Fort Hall 9: Fort Boise 10: Whitman Mission 11: Vancouver 12: Sacramento 13: Bent s Fort 14: Santa Fe 15: Los Angeles
5 Fort Laramie Navoo Independence Fort Kearney
6 United States Expansion On your map label this area: Original 13 States Color the area and the key to match 1776 Original 13 States
7 The United States in 1783
8 The United States in 1783 A territory is a land area that has not yet been divided into states. In 1783, the United States received a huge territory from Great Britain as part of the peace treaty ending the Revolutionary War.
9 The United States in 1783 Between 1803 and 1853 seven more territories were added to the United States. These acquisitions fulfilled the Manifest Destiny of the United States that is, the belief that the nation should expand to the Pacific coast.
10 The United States in 1783 ON THE MAP, print 1783: Land received from Great Britain at the end of the Revolutionary War. Color the Key & Map to match see next slide for example
11 1783 U.S. After Rev. War
12 Westward Expansion & Exploration The purchase of the Louisiana Territory by President Thomas Jefferson in 1803 led to the settlement of lands west of the Mississippi River Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, and Zebulon Pike explored the Louisiana Territory and other parts of the West
13 Routes to the West Although the United States government sent many explorers into the West, the people who learned the most about these lands were traders and fur trappers Beginning in 1821, traders followed the Santa Fe Trail from Independence, Missouri, southwest to Santa Fe, which then was in Mexican territory.
14 Routes to the West Trace the Santa Fe Trail by connecting the 16 s from Independence to Santa Fe. Print Santa Fe Trail next to it.
15 Routes to the West Traders took wagons filled with manufactured goods to Santa Fe, and brought back mules, furs, gold, and silver
16 Routes to the West The Old Spanish Trail continued west from Santa Fe to Los Angeles in present-day California.
17 Routes to the West Connect the 17 s from Santa Fe to Los Angeles, and label it the Old Spanish Trail
18 Westward Expansion The first states formed west of the Mississippi River were Louisiana (1812) Missouri (1821) Arkansas (1836) Texas (1845) Iowa (1846)
19 Westward Expansion On the map label the Mississippi River
20 Westward Expansion During the 1820s, Stephen Austin led hundreds of American families into Texas, then owned by Mexico The Americans living in Texas gained their independence from Mexico during the Texas Revolution of Sam Houston, who led the Texans to victory over Santa Anna and the Mexican army, became the first president of the Lone Star Republic. Texas was called the Lone Star Republic until it became a state in 1845.
21 Routes to the West The fur trappers, who were often called mountain men, roamed the Rocky Mountain region starting in the 1820s. Two of the most famous mountain men and trail blazers of the Far West were Jim Bridger and Jed Smith.
22 Routes to the West Bridger and Smith discovered the famous South Pass, which later was used by wagon trains crossing the Rocky Mountains to Oregon and California. Settlers traveling west used trails established by the mountain men.
23 Routes to the West Traders, trappers, explorers, and missionaries told stories about rich farmlands in California and Oregon Marcus and Narcissa Whitman and other missionaries wrote letters to friends back East that described the great forests and rich farmlands of the Oregon Country
24 Routes to the West Trace the Oregon Trail by connecting the number 18 s from Independence to Vancouver. Print Oregon Trail next to it. Print Willamette Valley just below Vancouver. Label the South Pass between Independence Rock and Fort Bridger Willamette Valley South Pass
25 Routes to the West The first wagon trains began the long journey over the Oregon and California trails during the 1840s. Wagon trains were organized every Spring at Independence, Missouri
26 Routes to the West Pioneers had to cross the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains before reaching the West Coast. One wagon train, the Donner Party, became trapped in the Sierra Nevada Mountains by early October snowstorms, and only 48 of the 87 people survived
27 Routes to the West Connect the 19 s, and label the California Trail. Print Donner Pass northeast of Sacramento. Print Sacramento Valley south of Sacramento. Donner Pass Sacramento Valley
28 Routes to the West In 1847, Brigham Young and the Mormons, who had been persecuted in several eastern states because of their religious beliefs, settled next to the Great Salt Lake in Utah.
29 Routes to the West Trace the dotted line which shows the Mormon Trail from Nauvoo to Salt Lake City. Print Mormon Trail next to it. Label the Great Salt Lake GREAT SALT LAKE
30 Routes to the West Label the Rocky Mountains (from Texas to Oregon) and the Sierra Nevada Mountains (northeast of Sacramento).
31 Routes to the West Color / lightly shade the map: Anything but blue: Mexico & Canadian borders Canada Mexico
32 Louisiana Purchase (1803)
33 Louisiana Purchase (1803) 1801: France obtained the city of New Orleans and the Louisiana Territory from Spain. When New Orleans belonged to the Spanish, American farmers in the West were allowed to ship their goods through the city to the eastern United States and Europe.
34 Louisiana Purchase (1803) But the French, under the leadership of Napoleon, denied use of the Mississippi River and the port at New Orleans. There was a growing concern in the United States that Napoleon would try to establish a powerful empire in North America.
35 Louisiana Purchase (1803) 1803: President Thomas Jefferson sent representatives to France in an attempt to get permission to use the Mississippi River and port facilities at New Orleans.
36 Louisiana Purchase (1803) Napoleon surprised the Americans by offering to sell New Orleans and the whole Louisiana Territory for $15 million. The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States.
37 Louisiana Purchase (1803) : Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the Louisiana Territory. They traced the Missouri River to its source in the Rocky Mountains, then followed the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean.
38 Louisiana Purchase (1803) : Zebulon Pike explored the upper Mississippi Valley and the Southwest.
39 Louisiana Purchase (1803) ON THE MAP, print 1803: Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million. Color the Key & Map to match see next slide for example
40 1803 Louisiana Purchase
41 Red River Cession (1818)
42 Red River Cession (1818) 1818: Great Britain at this time owned Canada. The British and American governments both claimed land along the boundary between Canada and the Louisiana Territory. Finally, an agreement was reached which divided the land in dispute. The United States was given a small area just above the Louisiana Territory. Great Britain, in exchange, received a small piece of land farther north in what is now Canada.
43 Red River Cession (1818) ON THE MAP, print: 1818: Red River Cession from treaty with Great Britain. Color the Key & Map to match See next slide for example
44 1818 Red River Cession
45 Spanish Cession (1819)
46 Spanish Cession (1819) 1818: Florida had been under Spanish control since the expedition of Ponce de Leon in the 1500s. By the early 1800s, it had become a trouble spot for the United States.
47 Spanish Cession (1819) Hundreds of runaway slaves went there. The Seminole Indians of Florida often crossed into Georgia and attacked American settlers.
48 Spanish Cession (1819) President James Monroe sent General Andrew Jackson to drive the Indians out of Georgia. Jackson chased the Seminoles into Florida and captured two Spanish forts.
49 Spanish Cession (1819) 1819: Spain realized it was unable to defend Florida against an American invasion. Spain at the time was busy trying to put down revolutions in its Latin American colonies.
50 Spanish Cession (1819) So the Spanish agreed to give up the area if the United States would pay American citizens $5 million owed to them by Spain. The land included Florida and parts of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
51 Spanish Cession (1819) ON THE MAP, print 1819: United States received Spanish Cession by agreeing to pay $5 million to Americans owed money by Spain. Color the Key & Map to match see next slide for example
52 1819 Spanish Cession
53 Texas Annexation (1845)
54 Texas Annexation (1845) 1818: Mexico decided to open Texas to American settlers. Stephen Austin led the first American families into Texas.
55 Texas Annexation (1845) 1830: Mexico became worried about the lood of immigrants from the United States, and banned further settlement.
56 Texas Annexation (1845) The Americans and Mexicans differed in language, religion, and ways of living. The Mexican government passed a law saying American plantation owners could no longer own slaves, but this law was ignored.
57 Texas Annexation (1845) 1835: Santa Anna became the president of Mexico, and warned that American settlers must obey Mexican laws.
58 Texas Annexation (1845) 1836: Texas declared its independence from Mexico. Santa Anna led a Mexican army north into Texas. Several thousand Mexican soldiers surrounded 187 Americans at the Alamo, a mission in San Antonio. William Travis, Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, and other Texans fought a courageous 2-week battle before being killed.
59 Texas Annexation (1845) General Sam Houston was named commander of the Texan army. The battle cry became Remember the Alamo. General Houston defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto, and the Texas Revolution came to an end. When Texas won its independence from Mexico, it asked Congress to be admitted to the Union as a state.
60 Texas Annexation (1845) Northern states opposed this request because many slave owners lived in Texas. Others feared a war with Mexico. Congress decided against statehood, and Texas remained an independent country known as the Lone Star Republic. Sam Houston was elected president of the new nation.
61 Texas Annexation (1845) 1845: After a lengthy debate in Congress, Texas was admitted to the Union as the 28th state.
62 Texas Annexation (1845) ON THE MAP, print 1845: The United States acquired the Texas Annexation 10 years after the Lone Star Republic won independence from Mexico. see next slide for example
63 Texas Annexation (1845) 1845 Texas Annexation
64 Oregon Country (1846)
65 Oregon Country (1846) 1818: The United States and Great Britain agreed to the joint-occupation shared ownership of the Oregon Country. Persons from either nation could settle there.
66 Oregon Country (1846) The Oregon Country included land which is today part of Canada. For many years, Indians and fur traders were the only people living in the region.
67 Oregon Country (1846) 1836: Marcus and Narcissa Whitman and other American missionaries went to the Oregon Country. They wanted to help the Indians, and spread Christianity to the Northwest.
68 Oregon Country (1846) 1843: The Whitman's told people back east about the rich farmland in Oregon, and many pioneer families began moving there.
69 Oregon Country (1846) The pioneers traveled together in wagon trains for protection against the Indians. The Oregon Trail stretched for 2,000 miles from Independence, Missouri, to the Willamette Valley of Oregon.
70 Oregon Country (1846) 1844: James K. Polk used the slogan or Fight! during his campaign for President.
71 Oregon Country (1846) 1846: The United States and Great Britain agreed to divide the Oregon Country into two parts. The United States was given the southern half, and Great Britain took control of the northern half. The boundary line was the 49 latitude line.
72 Oregon Country (1846) ON THE MAP, print 1846: Obtained by treaty with Great Britain after 28 years of joint occupation. see next slide for example
73 Oregon Country (1846) 1846 Oregon Country
74 Mexican Cession (1848)
75 Mexican Cession (1848) 1845: Texas was admitted to the Union. This angered Mexico, which still considered Texas to be its territory.
76 Mexican Cession (1848) 1846: A boundary dispute arose between the United States and Mexico. Both countries claimed an area of land between northern Mexico and southern Texas.
77 Mexican Cession (1848) The United States said the boundary line was the Rio Grande. The Mexicans claimed it was the Nueces River. The dispute led to the outbreak of the Mexican War.
78 Mexican Cession (1848) : General Zachary Taylor defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of Buena Vista. General Winfield Scott captured Veracruz and Mexico City, and Mexico surrendered.
79 Mexican Cession (1848) Meanwhile Colonel Stephen Kearny marched to California and helped American settlers overthrow the Mexicans in the Bear Flag Revolt.
80 Mexican Cession (1848) 1848: The United States won a large land area which today makes up the southwestern part of the United States. The United States paid Mexico $15 million for this area, known as the Mexican Cession.
81 Mexican Cession (1848) ON THE MAP, print 1848: The United States defeated Mexico in the Mexican War and gained the Mexican Cession. see next slide for example
82 Mexican Cession (1848) 1848 Mexican Cession
83 Gadsden Purchase (1853)
84 Gadsden Purchase (1853) 1853: Congress was studying four possible routes for building a transcontinental railroad to the Pacific coast. Supporters of a southern route wanted to extend the railroad at New Orleans westward to California. They pressured Congress into spending $10 million for a small strip of land at the southern end of the Rocky Mountains.
85 Gadsden Purchase (1853) It would provide a level route to the West Coast. The Gadsden Purchase, as the land area was called, was obtained from Mexico by foreign minister James Gadsden. The Gadsden Purchase, now part of southern Arizona and New Mexico, completed the acquisition of land which today makes up the continental United States.
86 Gadsden Purchase (1853) ON THE MAP, print 1853: Gadsden Purchase obtained from Mexico for $10 million, providing a level route for a transcontinental railroad. see next slide for example
87 Gadsden Purchase (1853) 1853 Gadsden Purchase
88 Color/ lightly shade the map: Blue: Great Lakes, Rio Grande, Pacific Coast, Atlantic Coast, & Gulf of Mexico Coast Gulf of Mexico
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