Expansion & Reform Unit ( ) The learner will assess the competing forces of expansionism, nationalism, and sectionalism.

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1 Expansion & Reform Unit ( ) The learner will assess the competing forces of expansionism, nationalism, and sectionalism.

2 Territorial Expansion Analyze the effects of territorial expansion and the admission of new states to the Union.

3 Essential Question How can expansion lead to conflict and change?

4 WESTERN EXPANSION -Missouri Compromise of 1820 equal free and slave states Missouri and Maine 36 30' line

5 WESTERN EXPANSION -Louisiana Purchase Meriwether Lewis William Clark Lewis and Clark Expedition Oregon Trail Conestoga Wagons

6 MORMONS -Religious group founded by Joseph Smith, Smith was killed by a mob denouncing his views -Brigham Young led the group west to Utah, Formed a thriving community (Salt Lake City) -Mormon Trail

7 INDIAN POLICY -Indian Removal Act of 1830 Cherokee -Worcester v. Georgia, Trail of Tears Indian Territory (Oklahoma) 4,000 died

8 TEXAS INDEPENDENCE -US settlers move into Mexican Texas led by Stephen F. Austin -Mexico, led by Santa Anna, tries to tighten its control over settlers in Texas region -Texans, led by Sam Houston, rebel

9 TEXAS INDPENDENCE -Battle of the Alamo, 1836 Texans defeated -Texans eventually defeat Mexican Army and declare independence -1836, Lone Star Republic -Sam Houston serves as President of Texas

10 ELECTION OF James K. Polk -Manifest Destiny -Oregon Territory Oregon Trail or Fight -Establish northern border with British Canada at 49 th parallel - Continuation of Convention of 1818 and Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1843

11 MEXICAN WAR -Texas annexation, Border dispute with Mexico Nueces and Rio Grande Rivers -Polk sends troops border skirmish General Zachary Taylor General Winfield Scott

12 MEXICAN WAR -Mexico defeated -Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo -Mexican Cession California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming -Wilmot Proviso neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory

13 SPOILS OF WAR -Gold found at Sutter s Mill, 1848 California Gold Rush 49ers -Compromise of 1850 California added as a free state -Gadsden Purchase

14 Territorial Expansion Analyze the effects of territorial expansion and the admission of new states to the Union.

15 Essential Question What affect did territorial expansion have on the development of the new nation?

16 Nationalism & Sectionalism: Economic and Social Issues Distinguish between the economic issues and social issues that led to sectionalism and nationalism.

17 SOCIETAL CHANGES North -Factory System Based on mechanization Owners of industry Laborers South -Plantation System Based on agriculture Plantation owners Planters Farmers Slaves

18 SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES -Views differed on many issues -Land free land vs. market value -Tariff high vs. low -Slavery pro-slavery vs. anti-slavery

19 TRANSPORTATION CHANGES -Erie Canal shipping route from Lake Erie to Hudson River connected Great Lakes to New York City expanded markets

20 TRANSPORTATION CHANGES -Robert Fulton steam powered ships

21 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -Eli Whitney cotton gin -Samuel Morse telegraph Morse code

22 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION -John Deere steel plow -Cyrus McCormick mechanical reaper

23 IMMIGRATION -Lots of immigration in the mid 1800 s -Mostly Irish or German -Most immigrants settled in groups; led to growth of urban areas -Low wages of immigrants caused problems with other workers -Growth of Nativism -Know-Nothing Party

24 Nationalism & Sectionalism: Political Events and Issues Assess political events, issues, and personalities that contributed to sectionalism and nationalism.

25 Essential Question To what extent were the leadership and personalities of the early 1800s responsible for the changes that occurred?

26 MONROE DOCTRINE -James Monroe became President in US is still a fragile nation in the world arena -Attempts to claim part of the world as our own neighborhood -Monroe Doctrine Europeans should not interfere in this hemisphere

27 AMERICAN SYSTEM -High tariff -National bank -System of internal improvements roads, bridges, canals -Gibbons v. Ogden interstate commerce controlled by national government -Help to settle western lands -Promoted by Henry Clay John C. Calhoun

28 ELECTION OF No winner of electoral college -John Quincy Adams chosen over Jackson as President -Called Corrupt Bargain -Jackson s supporters formed Democratic Party and opposed Adams policies -Tariff of Abominations, 1828

29 ELECTION OF Suffrage qualifications property requirement dropped -High voter turnout -Common Man s President -Creation of the Spoils System -Greater democracy, but women and minorities still ignored -Silent on the issue of slavery

30 NAT TURNER S REBELLION -Slaves turn to violent methods -Nat Turner, 1831 led a slave revolt -Scared many slave holders in the south -Led to greater control over slaves -Slave Codes

31 NULLIFICATION CRISIS -Debate over high tariffs -John C. Calhoun -Theory of nullification -SC threatens secession -Jackson threatens the use of force -Henry Clay organizes a compromise

32 NATIONAL BANK -Implied powers confirmed McCulloch v. Maryland, Jackson disliked the Bank of the U.S. -Thought it an abuse of power and served the wealthy first -Jackson vetoed the new charter for the bank and withdrew all government funds -Pet Banks

33 ELECTION OF Whig Party begun in 1834 to oppose Jackson -William Henry Harrison elected Whig President - Tippecanoe and Tyler Too -Dies one month after inauguration -John Tyler assumes Presidency

34 Nationalism & Sectionalism: Art, Literature, and Language Describe how the growth of nationalism and sectionalism were reflected in art, literature, and language.

35 Essential Question How did the U.S. develop and express its unique style through the arts during the early 1800s?

36 TRANSCENDENTALISM -Belief in a simple lifestyle -Henry David Thoreau Civil Disobedience MLK and Gandhi -Ralph Waldo Emerson Self-Reliance -Walt Whitman Leaves of Grass

37 AMERICAN WRITERS -James Fenimore Cooper Leatherstocking Tales Last of the Mohicans -Washington Irving Rip Van Winkle Sleepy Hollow -Edgar Allan Poe Raven -Noah Webster Dictionary of English Language

38 NATIONAL PRIDE -Hudson River School of Artists Thomas Cole Frederick Church -Neoclassical Architecture based on Roman architecture White House Monticello University of Virginia -Alex de Tocqueville Democracy in America

39 Role of Religion Evaluate the role of religion in the debate over slavery and other social movements and issues.

40 Essential Question In what ways did religious influence impact the effectiveness of social movements in the first part of the 19 th century?

41 SOCIETAL CHANGE -2 nd Great Awakening period of religious revival 1820s and 1830s Charles Finney Methodists and Baptists -Led to reforms abolitionist movement slavery as a moral dilemma

42 ABOLITIONISTS -Opposed slavery -William Lloyd Garrison The Liberator -Frederick Douglas North Star -David Walker freedom by force -Grimke Sisters

43 Reform Movements Identify the major reform movements and evaluate their effectiveness.

44 WOMEN REFORMERS -White, northern women saw increased opportunities in reform movements Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony Sara and Angelina Grimke

45 WOMEN S MOVEMENT -Seneca Falls Convention, 1848 Mott and Anthony Declaration of Sentiments -National Woman s Suffrage Association (NWSA) Anthony and Stanton

46 INSTITUTIONAL REFORM -Dorothea Dix mentally ill prison reform rehabilitation

47 EDUCATIONAL REFORM -Horace Mann public schools for all extended school year standard course of study trained teachers

48 UTOPIAN COMMUNITIES -A perfect society -Formed for religious or social reasons -Based on everyone working together -Most did not work well and fell victim to laziness, selfishness, and infighting New Harmony Brooke Farm Oneida

49 OTHER REFORMS -Women s Education Catherine Beecher Oberlin College -Health Reform Elizabeth Blackwell -Temperance Susan B. Anthony move to ban alcohol

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