1 Bell work What do you think when you hear the term Manifest Destiny?
2 Manifest Destiny and the War with Mexico
3 Essential Question How did the idea of Manifest Destiny affect the movement of Americans across the continent?
4 Objectives Examine the influence of Manifest Destiny on westward expansion. Describe the challenges travelers faced on major overland trails.
5 Terms to Know Manifest Destiny- the 19th-century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.
6 Moving West In the 1840s, expansion fever gripped the country. Most Americans had practical reasons for moving west. For settlers, the abundance of land was the greatest attraction. Many Americans also trekked west because of personal economic problems in the East.
7 Voice s of the Past It spreads forth into undulating and treeless plains and desolate sandy wastes.... It is a land where no man permanently abides, for at certain seasons of the year there is no food for the hunter or his steed. Washington Irving, 1836
8 Santa Fe Trial Stretched 780 miles Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico. For about the first 150 miles, traders traveled individually. After that, fearing attacks by Native Americans, traders banded into organized groups of up to 100 wagons.
9 Oregon Trail Stretched from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon. Many pioneers migrated west on the Oregon Trail Some bought wooden-wheeled wagons covered with sailcloth and pulled by oxen. Most walked, pushing handcarts loaded with a few precious possessions, food, and other supplies.
10 Mormon Migration Founded by Joseph Smith in upstate New York in 1827 Thousands of believers walked to Nebraska, across Wyoming to the Rockies, and then southwest. In 1847, the Mormons stopped at the edge of the desert near the Great Salt Lake in Utah Joseph Smith- Founder of the Mormons
11 The Oregon Trail- The Donner Party
12 Bell work As a group or partnership work together to bring to life one of the sayings that are written on the white strips of paper. You can draw a picture or write the phrase in a way that makes it pop.
13 Pack Your Wagon- Activity Your group will be traveling the Oregon Trail! As a group you must decide how much to pack and what you need to survive.
14 Bell work Which religious group headed West on a mission to seek religious freedom?
15 Essential Question How did the United States handle its border issues with Canada and Mexico?
16 Objectives Examine the significance of the Webster- Ashburton Treaty of 1842 Describe the journey of Texas from a colony to the Lone Star Republic
17 Setting Boundaries In the early 1840s, Great Britain still claimed areas near the Canadian border in parts of what are now Maine and Minnesota. The Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842: Settled territorial disputes in the East and Midwest Joint occupation of the Oregon Territory that they had first established in 1818 In 1846 the two countries agreed to extend the mainland boundary along the 49th parallel
18 A Free Texas Mexican government encouraged Americans to settle in Texas. In 1821, Stephen F. Austin led the first of several groups of American settlers to a fertile area along the Brazos River. Drawn by the promise of inexpensive land and economic opportunity. The population of Anglo, or Englishspeaking, settlers from the United States soon surpassed the population of Tejanos, or Mexican settlers, who lived in Texas.
19 Austin s Mess in Texas In 1821 he established a colony where no drunkard, no gambler, no profane swearer, and no idler would be allowed. By 1825, Austin had issued 297 land grants Each family received either 177 very inexpensive acres of farmland, or 4,428 acres for stock grazing By 1830,there were more than 20,000 Americans in Texas. Stephen Austin granted land to couples headed to Texas.
20 Texas Revolution Differences over cultural issues intensified between Anglos and the Mexican government. Many settlers were Southerners, who had brought slaves with them to Texas and only spoke English. Austin had traveled to Mexico City in 1833 to present petitions for greater selfgovernment for Texas. Austin was imprisoned for inciting a revolution, shortly after several rebellions broke out. In 1835, Austin was released and called for Texans to arm themselves.
22 Remember the Alamo! The commander of the Anglo troops, Lieutenant Colonel William Travis, moved his men into the Alamo, a mission and fort in the center of San Antonio. From February 23, 1836, Mexican troops attacked the rebels holed up in the Alamo. On March 2, 1836, Texans declared their independence from Mexico and created a constitution. Siege finally ended on March 6,1836, when Mexican troops scaled the Alamo s walls.
23 Opening Activity Please start cutting out the wagon template located on the table. There should be scissors at all tables were three people can cut the wagon pieces out. You need the following: Wagon bottom The canopy 4 wheels The black strip
24 Bell work How did Austin spark conflict between Mexican and American settlers throughout Texas?
25 Why Is the Alamo Important? In pairs read the following NewsELA article: Expansion and Reform: Remembering the Alamo After marking up the text answer the following questions: 1. Why is the event described in the article taught in schools today? 2. What are the lasting lessons that we can learn from studying this event?
26 Bell work Describe one moment from your experience on the Oregon Trail that you loved.
27 Essential Question How did the war of independence in Texas push the United States to declare war on Mexico?
28 Objectives Analyze the reasons for the annexation of Texas by the United States Describe the reasons for the Mexican-American War.
29 Texan Independence While Americans laid down their lives at the Alamo, Texan leaders drew up a new constitution. The Texas Declaration of Independence was similar to the United States doctrine. This document stated that Mexico had violated the rights of American settlers.
30 The Battle of San Jacinto Six weeks after the defeat at the Alamo, the rebels (Americans) commander in chief, Sam Houston, and 900 soldiers surprised a group of Mexicans near the San Jacinto River. Texans killed 630 Mexican soldiers in 18 minutes. Captured the Mexican president, Antonio López de Santa Anna Santa Anna was freed only after he signed the Treaty of Velasco, which granted independence to Texas.
31 The Lone Star Republic Sam Houston- Elected President of Texas A delegation was sent to Washington D.C. to petition the annexation of Texas by the United States. Current president, Andrew Jackson, refused due to the threat of the balance between free and slave states.
32 Texas & the U.S. Most Texans hoped that the United States would annex their republic. Nation divided: South: Wanted another slave state North: Feared that another slave state would cause issues The 1844 election, pushed the issue and presidential winner- James K. Polk, firmly favored annexation
33 Polk and Manifest Destiny Polk had offered to buy California and New Mexico twice from Mexico by Polk was determined to own both because of the clear passage to the Pacific Ocean that both states would offer. After being denied purchase, Polk planned to take both states by force. However, he needed Mexico to provoke aggression first. Political Cartoon depicting Polk s war behavior.
34 Border Disputes Down South In March 1845, angered by U.S.-Texas negotiation on annexation, the Mexican government recalled its ambassador from Washington. On December 29, 1845, Texas entered the Union. This pushed a boundaries issue between Mexico and the Untied States Texas insisted that its southern border extended to the Rio Grande. Mexico maintained that Texas s border stopped at the Nueces River, miles northeast of the Rio Grande.
35 War Begins Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to negotiate secretly the boundary dispute, as well as the sale of California and New Mexico for $30 million. The Mexican government refused to receive Slidell and announced its plan to reclaim what was stolen from them. Polk ordered U.S. troops into the territory between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River that the United States claimed as its own.
36 Bell work Opinion: War is necessary for peace. Thinking back on how the Mexican-American War started, do you think this statement is right? If yes, why? If you disagree with the statement, explain.
38 Conflict near the border John C. Frémont led an American military exploration party into California, violating Mexico s territorial rights. In a skirmish, Mexican soldiers killed 11 U.S. soldiers. Polk immediately called for war and Congress approved. In 1846, Polk ordered his troops to march from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, to Santa Fe, New Mexico. New Mexico fell to the United States without a shot fired.
39 Essential Questions What resulted of the war between Mexico and the United States?
40 Objective Identify the significant events of the Mexican-American War and the effects of the conflict.
41 American Attitudes Americans were heavily divided about the war. Democrats supported the war, Whigs (pre-republican party) opposed it calling the war an act of aggression. Newspapers generally favored the war, and volunteers quickly signed up for military service. Many Northerners did not support the war believing it was an action meant to spread slavery.
42 Polk s 3-part Attack Plan 1 st - American troops would drive Mexican troops out of the disputed border region in Texas, securing the border. 2 nd - The U.S. would seize New Mexico and California. 3 rd - American troops would take Mexico City
43 Republic of California In California, a group of American settlers seized the town of Sonoma in June The rebels proudly declared their independence from Mexico and proclaimed the nation of the Republic of California. Troops arrived from New Mexico and joined up with the rebels. The Mexican troops quickly gave way, leaving U.S. forces in control of California.
44 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo After about a year of fighting, Mexico conceded defeat. On February 2,1848, the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Treaty terms: Rio Grande the border between Mexico & Texas New Mexico, California apart of the Union U.S. pays $15 Million for land in Nevada, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Lap Desk & Quill Used to Write & Sign 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on the Block
46 The One s left Behind Not only did the U.S. gain 1/3 of the land Mexico once owned, it also gained between 75, ,000 Mexicans and 150,000 Native Americans. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo did grant citizenship rights, but prejudice lead to the label of inferior on Mexicans who chose to remain in the U.S.
47 Gadsden Purchase In 1853, President Franklin Pierce authorized James Gadsden to pay Mexico an additional $10 million for territory south of the Gila River. Hoped to secure a southern railroad route to the Pacific Ocean. The Gadsden Purchase helped to establish the current borders of the contiguous 48 states.
48 The Californian Gold Rush The United States quickly benefited from its new territories when gold was discovered. When the news reached San Francisco, virtually the whole town hustled to the Sacramento Valley to pan for gold. As gold fever traveled eastward, overland migration to California rose from 400 in 1848 to 44,000 in California s population exceeded 100,000, including Mexicans, free African-American miners, and slaves.
49 The Golden Economy The discovery of gold revolutionized California s economy. Gold financed the development of farming, manufacturing, shipping, and banking. Ships linked California markets to the expanding markets of the rest of the United States. Mining continued in California throughout the 1850s, but the peak of the gold rush was over by 1853.
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