American History Unit 10: Age of Jacksonian Politics

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1 American History Unit 10: Age of Jacksonian Politics

2 The Age of Jackson I. Andrew Jackson, known as "Old Hickory" A. Hero of the War of 1812 (Battle of New Orleans) B. Famous Indian fighter (The Seminoles and the Creek.) C. Represented the common man.

3 The Election of 1824 I. Corrupt Bargain A. William Crawford expected to win the presidential election but he suffered stroke. B. Race now between Andrew Jackson, John Q. Adams, and Henry Clay. 1. No clear majority winner. a. House had to decide the winner. 2. Henry Clay got his states to support John Q. Adams. a. Henry Clay became Adam's Secretary of State C. John Q. Adams elected President. (John Adams' son) HISTORY FUN FACT: President John Quincy Adams owned a pet alligator, which he kept in the East Room of the White House. Jackson John Q. Adams Crawford Clay

4 The Election of 1828 I. Andrew Jackson: Seemed like the unbeatable candidate. A. Andrew Jackson vs. John Q. Adams (incumbent) B. Jackson won!!! 1. Wife died before he entered office. a. Died after scandalous campaign. 1a. Jackson s opponents discovered her divorce from her first husband wasn t finalized before she and Jackson got married. C. Selected John C. Calhoun as Vice President. D. Selected Martin Van Buren as ambassador to Great Britain. 1. Calhoun opposed selection of Van Buren and he was recalled. 2. This event was the beginning of hard feelings between Jackson and Calhoun. Andrew Jackson was the first U.S. President to ride in a railroad train. Andrew Jackson s tombstone does not mention that he served as the president of the United States. Until 2001, John Q. Adams was the only son of a former President to become President himself.

5 The Election of 1828

6 The Election of 1832 I. Andrew Jackson won again. A. Replaced Calhoun with Van Buren as Vice President. 1. Calhoun got upset and returned to South Carolina. B. The development of the Spoils System. 1. Practice of hiring friends and placing them in government positions. a. The practice remained for years. History Fun Fact: Andrew Jackson was the first president to have an assassination attempt made against him. The two pistols misfired and Jackson beat the man severely with his cane. Jackson got into several duels with pistols. He had a bullet lodged in his arm for years.

7 Election 1832 Candidates

8 Nullification Crisis of 1832 I. John C. Calhoun led the state of South Carolina in protest of the Protective Tariff of A. Calhoun believed that the tariff would harm the southern markets. B. Jackson viewed this act as treason and threatened to arrest Calhoun. C. The tariff was nullified and the threat ended. 1. Calhoun believed the southern states had the right to secede, and he openly voiced his opinion. 2. Soon other Southerners would join in voicing their beliefs.

9 How a Tariff Worked

10 Why Northerners Wanted Tariffs

11 Why Southerners Hated Tariffs (Wanted Free-Trade)

12 Other Highlights of the Jackson Years I. The Bank War A. The Senate overwhelmingly passed a bill to re-charter the Bank of the United States. B. Jackson vetoed the bill because of his dislike of banks. 1. Jackson thought that banks only benefited the wealthy. 2. Caused the Panic of a. National Bank called in all debts owed. b. People didn't have it that s why they borrowed the money in the first place.

13 The Forced Removal of Indians I. The Civilized Tribes" A. Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles. 1. Called civilized because many accepted White laws, built farms, schools, and adopted written languages. II. Trail of Tears. A. Andrew Jackson sided with settlers and demanded that the Indians be removed from land sought by land-hungry farmers. B. Indians petitioned U.S. Supreme Court to keep land. 1. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Indians. a. President Jackson said," Let the Court support its decision." b. The Supreme Court was powerless. 2. Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act in a. Military sent to round up Indians. b. Forced Civilized Tribes to give up lands in Southeast U.S. and moved to the Indian Nations (Oklahoma) 1b. Area was swampy and in terrible condition. c. Many Indians died on journey.

14 The Trail of Tears Trail of Tears: The forced removal of Indians in the American Southeast to Oklahoma killed thousands of Indians.

15 The Forced Removal of Indians Map

16 Seminole War III. Seminole War ( ) A. Resisted removal from Florida. 1. Led by Chief Osceola. 2. War was very costly for the U.S. 3. Seminoles were defeated and sent to Oklahoma. a. Many Seminoles escaped and hid in swamps and remained in Florida. Chief Osceola American soldiers search for wellhidden Seminole Indians in Florida s swamplands. The Seminole fought to remain to their lands.

17 Discussion Questions 1. Given the ideals of the American Revolution, why do you think Andrew Jackson s policies were so popular? 2. What arguments would you make against the removal of the Cherokee from Georgia?

18 The Election of 1836 I. Martin Van Buren elected President. A. His Presidency came under fire after he inherited Jackson s financial problems. 1. The Panic of 1837 and other economic troubles caused by Jackson s Bank War threatened Van Buran's administration. a. Van Buran elected to only one term. Martin Van Buran: His Presidency came under fire after he inherited Jackson s financial problems. HISTORY FUN FACT: Martin Van Buren was the first President to be born in the United States. His predecessors were all born in the colonies while they were still under the control of England.

19 The Election of 1840 I. William Henry Harrison - Whig Party A. Hero of Battle of Tippecanoe B. Campaigned as the "man of the people." C. Harrison died five weeks after he became President. 1. He served the shortest time in office. II. Vice President John Tyler became the new President A. Vetoed several Whig-sponsored bills. B. Tyler's entire cabinet resigned out of protest. C. Tyler was not re-nominated for President and kicked out of Whig Party. William Henry Harrison: Died five weeks after he became President. He served the shortest time in office. John Tyler: This former U.S. President became a member of the Confederate government during the Civil War. He was considered a traitor and when he died he was not given any recognition.

20 Age of Jacksonian Politics Review 1. Explain why Andrew Jackson was so popular with the common man. 2. Describe the "Corrupt Bargain." 3. What was the "Spoils System?" 4. Describe the Nullification Crisis of What was the Bank War? 6. Describe the events of the Indian Removal Act. 7. Describe the presidency of Martin Van Buren. 8. Describe the presidencies of William Henry Harrison and John Tyler.

21 Andrew Jackson "Old Hickory" Corrupt Bargain William Crawford John Q. Adams John C. Calhoun Martin Van Buren Spoils System Nullification Crisis of 1832 South Carolina Bank War Panic of 1837 National Bank Civilized Tribes Trail of Tears Indian Removal Act in 1830 Oklahoma Seminole War Chief Osceola William Henry Harrison John Tyler Terms to Know

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