Unit 4: Nationalism, Sectionalism and Expansion

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1 Bellwork In 4-6 sentences, tell me if you agree or disagree with the following statement and why. Religion has played a vital role in American history and has shaped our country into what it is today. Unit 4: Nationalism, Sectionalism and Expansion Objectives Analyze social and religious conflicts, movements and reforms that affected the United States from Colonization to Reconstruction in terms of participants, strategies opposition and results. Agenda Bellwork Lecture on SGW DBQ Activity Second Great Awakening

2 Second Great Awakening Second Great Awakening began in the early 1800s. Protestant preachers believed Americans became immoral and it contributed to the country's failings. These preachers were revivalists because they wanted to revive the role of religion. They used outdoor services, normally in tents called revivals. Charles Grandison Finney was one of the most influential. He was an evangelical (Strong emotion and attract converts). Second Great Awakening Cont Tensions between separation of church and state rose. African Americans were welcome at revivals. They formed their own churches known as the African Methodist Episcopal (AME). Religion offered promise and freedom. This period also led to Joseph Smith who spoke and wrote of visions he had and founded the Church of Latter Day Saints (Mormons). In New England, Puritans churches began to see God as a trinity and formed the Unitarians. Non-Protestants Most of the preachers of Second Great Awakening were Protestant and more than half of all Americans were as well. Many Americans persecuted the Mormons. They had political power and were chased out of many communities. Smith declared he was going to run for president and was murdered. Brigham Young led them to Utah. Catholics also faced harsh discrimination. Protestants did not understand who like the pope. Also faced high poverty rates. Jewish people also faced discrimination and could not hold political office. Utopias Transcendentalists Utopian communities were settlements in which people were trying to achieve a perfect community. New Harmony in Indians sought to have a cooperative society. Attracted 1,000 people. The shakers also set up communities, they had men and women live in separate housing, no marriage and only grew if people joined. Transcendentalists developed a new way to look at humanity, nature and God. They believed they could transcend or go beyond their senses to learn about the world. Ralph Waldo Emerson was one of the leaders. He talked about how the universe and the individual interact. Henry David Thoreau was famous for his essay Civil Disobedience. He believed a person must keep their conscience even if it meant breaking the law. Refused to pay taxes because they supported war, was jailed. DBQ Activity

3 Bellwork Objectives Agenda Respond to following question in 4-6 sentences: If you could reform any part of society today (government, health care, women's rights, race issues, immigration, etc), what would it be, what would you do and why is it in most need of reform. Analyze social and religious conflicts, movements and reforms that affected the United States from Colonization to Reconstruction in terms of participants, strategies opposition and results. Bellwork Review DBQ Make outline as if writing paper for DBQ Reform movements activity Lecture on Reforms HW is Reforms packet DBQ and Outline Reform Movements Reforming Education The second Great Awakening birth the reform movements. The most popular being School Reform. Kid taught by parents since the early colonial days. Reformers started the public school movement and wanted to establish a system of tax-supported schools. One reformer was Horace Mann who pushed for mandatory attendance by law, training teachers, state oversight, and adequate school funding. Women played a key role like Catharine Beecher and Emma Willard who helped establish schools.

4 Imprisoned and Mentally ill Dorothea Dix began teaching Sunday school in a prison in Discovered mentally ill were with the criminals she wanted to act to change that. Wrote legislation and campaigned to change the mental system. Alos fought to make prisons from places of punishment to places of penitence or sorrow...called the penitentiary movement. Pennsylvania system: solitary confinement until repentance. Auburn System: worked together during the day and separate cells at night Temperance Movement Many people attributed the issues in America to alcohol. Reformers launched the temperance movement which was an effort to end alcohol abuse. Some believed in moderation others in prohibition. Argued it caused families to go hungry and crime to rise. Neal Dow was elected mayor of Portland and restricted the sale of alcohol and started the movement of states passing laws against. HW Reform Packet Bellwork Objectives Agenda Respond to prompt in 4-6 sentences: What does it mean to abolish something? What was an abolitionist? Tell me what you know about the anti-slavery movement in the 1800s. Analyze social and religious conflicts, movements and reforms that affected the United States from Colonization to Reconstruction in terms of participants, strategies opposition and results. Bellwork Lecture on Anti-slavery movement Jigsaw activity on Abolition Cartoon Assignment

5 Life Under Slavery Resistance Antislavery Movement Cruel treatment, backbreaking tasks and laboring from dawn to dusk. Severe punishments Some slaves would take their own lives Most slaves however maintained their hope and dignity. Slaves would resist where they could, break tools, outwit overseers, and many escaping. 200 significant slave revolts during the first half of the 1800s. Denmark Vesey, a freedman (former slave), was planning a massive slave revolt yet his plan was discovered and he was hung. 1831, Nat Turner had a much more successful revolt. Attempted to capture an armory and was almost successful. Killed 60 people along the way before being stopped by the militia. Made the South terrified of a revolt. Free African Americans Fight Against Slavery Frederick Douglass Large population of free African Americans in 1840s This was concerning to the white population and they believed it would give too much hope to those in slavery Founded the American Colonization Society (ACS) which had the goal of sending africans back to african. Established Liberia and had 1,100 Africans relocate there. In the US many established schools and churches. David Walker worked to change the public opinion of slavery. The negatives of slavery had been spreading through the country. Many in the North opposed to it on Moral grounds. It was established in the south and tied to the economy. in 1800s, a movement against slavery began to grow, the abolition movement. William Lloyd Garrison became a leading abolitionist. He began to publish an anti-slavery newspaper and tried to convince people based on a moral argument. Born somewhere around 1818 and lived to Was born a slave in maryland and escaped in Became a speaker for the abolitionist movement. Very good speaker and greatly helped the movement.

6 Anti-Abolition Southerners argued slavery was necessary for their economy and believed the North benefited as well since they needed the cotton from the South. Many argued that Christianity supported slavery. Many Northerners sided with them as well. Garrison was chanced down the streets in response to his newspapers, Elijah Lovejoy s printing press was destroyed and he was later killed. Gag Rule passed by Southerners in 1836 (with support of Northerners) prevented slavery from being discussed in Congress. Jigsaw Activity Cartoon Analysis Bellwork Objectives Agenda Respond to prompt in 4-6 sentences. Do you think that women have just as many rights as men today? If yes, do you think they are given those rights? If no, why not? How can we help improve the rights of citizens today? Analyze social and religious conflicts, movements and reforms that affected the United States from Colonization to Reconstruction in terms of participants, strategies opposition and results. Bellwork Lecture on Women s movement Group Poster work Time to work on Cartoon

7 Women Work for Change Fight for Rights Women s Movement Women s rights highly limited in the 1800s. Women could not hold office, own property, vote or even speak in public. the Second Great Awakening allowed them to take more active roles and they began to work with reform movements (Ex. Dorothea Dix). Many women in the abolitionist movement as well. Sojourner Truth was a former slave who captured audience attention. In the early and middle 1800s, the women s movement began to fight for greater rights and opportunities. Women began to publish their ideas, Margaret Fuller believed women needed intellect and soul. There were only a few women who fought for total equality, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were two who did. They believed women needed an active role in all aspects of society. Seneca Falls Bellwork Mott and Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention. Attracted hundreds of attendees including Frederick Douglass. Drafted the Declaration of Sentiments which modeled the Declaration of Independence. Amelia Bloomer was an attendee who was inspired by the event. Started publishing a paper about women's rights call The Lily. the quest for rights would be called suffrage. New York passed the Married Women s Property Act the same year which guaranteed property rights for women. Poster Activity In 5-6 sentences respond to the following prompt: When considering what we have learned the past 4 days, which movement do you think is the most important? Why?

8 Objectives Agenda Analyze social and religious conflicts, movements and reforms that affected the United States from Colonization to Reconstruction in terms of participants, strategies opposition and results. Bellwork Crash Course Westward expansion Introduction Crash Course Spanish Borderlands Moving West Spanish and Indians are settling New Mexico Spain had to build more defenses in order to defend its settlements in New Mexico Few settlers moved into Texas California however thrived, Spanish sent Father Junipero Serra, a priest to help convert Indians in California. It was more successful because they lacked guns and horses.

9 Americans Look West Journey West Expansionists, people who favored territory growth, began to want New Mexico, Texas and used the term Manifest Destiny which was the belief that God wanted them to own all of North America. When Mexico won independence, America began early to trade with the, and opened the Santa Fe Trail, true between Missouri and New Mexico. Others went into the th Rockies seeking furs, these trappers were called Mountain Men. Missionaries began going to Oregon taking the Oregon Trail. Emigrants going out west would travel in groups for safety. (10-50 wagons and 50-1,000 people) The journey was a gamble for many. Leadership of Mormons passed to Brigham Young who led them to Great salt Lake in the west. Indians generally left the settlers alone yet the government passed the Treaty of Fort Laramie which bound Indians to settlements away from trails (1851). Go West, young man, and grow up with the country. Horace Greely Texas and the Mexican American War Texas Wins Independence Mexico offering land to American who will become Mexican citizens in hope to protect Texas. Stephen F Austin began to lead emigrants east of San Antonio and settled Austin. By 1835, Texas was home to 30,000 Americans. Santa Anna seized power in Mexico City and wanted a centralized government. Most in Texas wanted more autonomy, independent control, and did not like him. Texans rebelled and a year later gained independence no formed the Lone Star Republic Texas Wins Independence Cont 12 day battle at the Alamo here Santa Anna overran the fort and had the defenders killed. Anna thought it would scare the revolt but led by Sam Houston, the Texans led Santa Anna into a trap and crushed the Mexican Army. Santa Anna signed a treaty and recognized Texas independence.

10 Americans Debate Expansion The Mexican-American War Sam Houston was elected President of Texas and quickly ask the US to annex them. In 1844, James K Polk was elected President. He was an expansionist who devoutly believed in Manifest Destiny. Polk knew he needed to promise the North Oregon territory in order to annex Texas. North felt betrayed because Polk agreed with the British to split the Oregon Territory. Polk preferred war with Mexico. Annexation of Texas caused the border dispute to flare up. Polk sent General Zachary Taylor and troops to occupy the contested land. Polk drafted a declaration of war assuming it wouldn't be long. In May of 1846, a Mexico patrol clashed with US units. Taylor called congress to declare war. US had the military advantages. They won every major battle. About a year and a half of fighting before the US won. Effects of Territorial Expansion America Achieves Manifest Destiny California Gold Rush Effects of Gold Rush Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo forced Mexico to give up the Northern third of their country. Added 1.2 million square miles to the US. They just had to leave Mexico City and pay 15 million. Humiliated Mexicans. Gadsden purchase added even more land from Southern New Mexico and Southern Arizona. David Wilmot created the Wilmot Proviso which would ban slavery in lands won from Mexico. Divided the Congress sectionally, failed in Senate. Mass migration caused by the California Gold Rush had 80,000 Americans head to California. Called the forty-niners. Used cheap pans, picks and shovels..called placer mining. Later advancements allowed for hydraulic mining which employed jets of water to find the gold. Newcomers asserted dominance over California and discouraged Chinese from mining. They also terrorized and killed many native Americans. They wanted to join the union. Drafted a Constitution which did not mention African Americans. Union was 15 free and 15 slave at the time and this threw them into more debate and discord.

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