Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion

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1 Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion

2 Van Buren, Harrison, and Tyler Martin Van Buren was the 8th President from Indian Removal Amistad Case Diplomacy with Great Britain and Mexico over land conflicts. Democrat William Henry Harrison was the 9th President from Known for fighting Tecumseh and the War of 1812 Whig Shortest Presidency months John Tyler was the 10th President from Whig, Longest serving non-elected president Vetoed many Whig bills he thought were unconstitutional Pushed through Texas annexation

3 Manifest Destiny The expansionist idea, Manifest Destiny, began to take hold, saying that the United States destiny was to fill North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific. With the rapidly expanding population of the United States demanding more land, both the Whig and Democratic Parties supported expansionism. Side effects of expansionism included the continuing conflict between Americans and those already inhabiting new territories, as well as continuing to deal with the controversial issue of slavery.

4 The Mormon Trail The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Mormons, was founded in the 1820s by Joseph Smith, a farmer in New York. Following conflict with other groups over religious practices including polygamy, Smith and his followers settled in Nauvoo, Illinois in With Smith s murder 5 years later by a mob, the Mormons, now under Brigham Young, decided to continue moving West. They settled Primarily in Salt Lake City, in what would become Utah, though they left many Mormon settlements on their trail westward.

5 The Oregon Trail and California Trail American migration to the disputed Oregon territory increased in the early 1840s, due to reports of fertile soil, mild climate, and good fishing and harbors Large numbers of settlers began gathering in Independence Missouri, and setting off on a six month journey following the Oregon Trail. In 1843, 1000 settlers attempted the trek. By 1845, 5000 had reached Oregon. By 1860 about 350,000 settlers had travelled the trail, with over 34,000 dying. Some settlers took the California Trail at the Snake River, mostly those interested in cattle ranching. This changed after 1849, with the discovery of gold in California.

6 Texas In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain, and took control of most Spanish territory in North America. To attract new immigrants, Mexico offered very favorable terms for buying land, and even gave large land grants. Stephen Austin of Connecticut was granted 180,000 acres of land by the Mexican government, which he in turn sold to incoming American settlers. By ,000 white Americans and 3,000 black slaves were living in central and eastern Texas, primarily raising cattle and cotton. This alarmed the Mexican government, as these new American settlers had little loyalty to Mexico, were predominantly Protestant, and owned slaves, which was illegal in Mexico.

7 Texas Following demands for greater autonomy by Texan residents in 1835, the Mexican president and Leader Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna lead an army to Texas to impose Mexico s authority. This led to the Texas Revolution, which lasted from Some notable events of the conflict include: The Alamo - A siege of a mission in February of 1836, which led to a Mexican victory that resulted in the deaths of 167 Texan, including Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie. This helped fuel Texan s anger against the Mexicans and Remember the Alamo became their war cry. The Battle of San Jacinto - The last major battle of the conflict, led by Sam Houston, who defeated Santa Anna s army and took him captive, leading to Texas independence from Mexico. Houston became the the first President of the Republic of Texas in While Texans immediately worked for the annexation of Texas by the United States, various issues would keep Texas independent until 1846.

8 The Election of 1844 The main candidates in the 1844 election were Henry Clay for the Whigs and James Polk for the Democrats. The annexation of both the Oregon territory and the Republic of texas were major issues in the campaign. Polk s support of the annexation of both areas won him the Democratic Presidential nomination. Clay s stance against the annexation may well have cost him the election. Polk beat Clay 170 to 104 electoral votes, but his victory in New York was only by a few thousand votes, which would have flipped the election towards Clay. Polk also won the popular vote, but only by about 40,000 or 1.4% of the vote. Following Polk s victory, President Tyler was able to push a annexation resolution for Texas through in congress, allowing Texas entrance to the Union as a slave state.