Life in the New Nation

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1 Life in the New Nation United States History Fall, 2014

2 Cultural, Social, Religious Life How and when did the new nation s identity take shape? Cultural advancement many tried to establish national character Mercy Otis Warren: encouraged women to take up scholarly interests Benjamin Rush: doctor, scientist, professor Benjamin Banneker: surveyed Washington, DC Charles Willson Peale: museum founder

3 Cultural, Social, Religious Life, Part II How and when did the new nation s identity take shape? Education a means to develop rich, unique American culture Noah Webster: wrote The American Spelling Book, 1783 Also: American Dictionary of the English Language Responsibility of schools to teach virtues

4 Cultural, Social, Religious Life, Part III How and when did the new nation s identity take shape? Republican virtues self-reliance, hard work, frugality, harmony, sacrifice Social changes Population growth soared in early 1800s Mobility Many Americans moved west and developed new friendships

5 Cultural, Social, Religious Life, Part IV How and when did the new nation s identity take shape? Courtship and marriage Women became cautious about marriage Getting married was still a matter of survival Second Great Awakening evangelical Christian Bible is final authority Salvation through personal relationship with Jesus Demonstrate faith by leading transformed life, performing good deeds

6 Cultural, Social, Religious Life, Part IV Second Great Awakening How and when did the new nation s identity take shape? Second Great Awakening evangelical Democratic: anyone could win salvation Emphasis on congregation the members of the church Women took an active role in movement New denominations Baptists: believed only those old enough to understand Christian beliefs should be baptized Methodists: focused on personal relationship with God Unitarians: Not an evangelical faith; believed Jesus was a human messenger of God, but not divine himself

7 Cultural, Social, Religious Life, Part IV Second Great Awakening How and when did the new nation s identity take shape? Second Great Awakening evangelical Democratic: anyone could win salvation Emphasis on congregation the members of the church Women took an active role in movement New denominations Mormons: believed God would restore a truer, simpler church Millenialists: William Miller believed Jesus would return in March 1843 Followers formed the Seventh-Day Adventist Church

8 Cultural, Social, Religious Life, Part IV Second Great Awakening How and when did the new nation s identity take shape? Second Great Awakening evangelical Democratic: anyone could win salvation Emphasis on congregation the members of the church Women took an active role in movement African-American worship Many African-Americans turned to evangelical worship Strong sense of community Blending of traditions call and response Often felt unwelcome in white-dominated churches eventually started African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church

9 Trails to the West Expanding into Florida 1795: United States, Spain agree to Pinckney Treaty Florida remains in Spanish lands US border is 31º latitude US then annexed West Florida Andrew Jackson crossed into Spanish Florida with 2,000 men First Seminole War Eventually claimed possession of all of Florida 1819: Spain, US sign Adams-Onís Treaty giving up Florida to US

10 Trails to the West Manifest Destiny Manifest destiny obvious, or undeniable fate To expand throughout all of North America Oregon Country Churches began to send missionaries, tried to convert Native Americans Migrants traveled roughly 2,000 miles west to Oregon Why? Farmland, or selling land for a profit Trading goods

11 Trails to the West Manifest Destiny, Part II Other migrations Santa Fe Trail Independence, MO, to Santa Fe, NM From Santa Fe, some went on to California along Old Spanish trail Mormon migrations: Mormons, due to persecution, moved outside US to the Great Salt Lake Gold Rush: John Sutter discovered gold in California in 1848 California Gold Rush drew many settlers out west Mining towns had short lives; many became ghost towns

12 The Oregon Trail

13 Native Americans and the Great Plains Plains Indians were nomadic The horse had a profound impact on Native American life Able to carry possessions, hunt buffalo Many tribes migrated to avoid settlers, hunt buffalo Iowa (1846), Wisconsin (1848), Minnesota (1858) became states Decline of villages: arrival of horse led to warrior raids Diseases brought by traders also wiped out Natives

14 Spanish Colonies and Texas Spanish power was on the decline after the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 Spanish built a series of presidios (forts) along California coast Father Junípero Serra founded missions in late 1700s Native population in California fell during 1700s and 1800s Settlers in New Mexico lived closer together

15 Mexican Independence Treaty of Córdoba, 1821: Mexico gained independence from Spain California, New Mexico, Texas were part of Mexico Mexican economic policies widened gap between rich and poor American merchants and traders brought goods to Mexico Helped develop strong economic ties

16 Settlement in Texas Stephen F. Austin led American settlers into Texas in 1822 Received permission to found a colony in east Texas As more Americans moved, Mexico passed a law prohibiting further settlement Also banned importation of slaves More Americans moved, and demanded more political control Texas War for Independence began in 1835 between settlers and General Antonio López de Santa Anna Settlers named Sam Houston commander in chief

17 Texas War for Independence Sam Houston named commander in chief Santa Anna crossed Rio Grande into San Antonio Battle of the Alamo 13-day battle between Mexican and Texan forces at a San Antonio mission Santa Anna s forces eventually overran the Alamo Texans regrouped at San Jacinto River and captured Santa Anna Treaty of Velasco: Mexico recognizes Republic of Texas Sam Houston elected president; Texas allows slavery