2 REASONS FOR EXPANSION Political desire & necessity Economic more land meant more opportunity to make money Social Spread religion and open up more space to live
3 POLITICAL NATIONALISM Americans loved their country Spread democracy from sea to shining sea! NATIONAL SECURITY Feared we might be endangered by foreign powers. To conquer that fear, conquer more land! BY FORCE Expand across the continent. Use force if necessary Indians and Mexicans
4 ECONOMIC FAMILY FARMERS Dreamed of owning own farms. Frontier land was cheap and sometimes free! BUSINESSMEN Non-farmers could start their own business. UNEMPLOYED When faced with unemployment in cities, they were advised, Go West, young man! SOUTHERN SLAVEHOLDERS Soil in plantations were depleted of minerals. Land ownership associated with wealth and political power. SEA MERCHANTS Merchants on the East Coat wanted to trade with countries in the Pacific.
5 SOCIAL RELIGIOUS MISSION America was destined by God to expand its borders. WHITE SUPREMACY White man had the right to destroy anything and anyone who got in the way. Indians and Mexicans PROGRESS Could make better use of the land than those who occupied it. Brought God, technology, and civilization. OUTLET FOR POPULATION Population increase due to a high birth rate and immigration. Between 1820 and 1850, 4 million moved West!
6 DONE IN STAGES Up to 1776 East Coast Colonies After 1783 E. of Mississippi R. Treaty of Paris (HL) After 1787 G.Lakes & Ohio R. Valley Ordinance of 1787 (HL) After 1803 Mississippi R. Valley Louisiana Purchase (HL) After 1819 Gulf of Mexico War of 1812 (HL) After 1835 Oregon The Oregon Trail After 1848 California Gold Rush/ 49 ers After 1860 The Great Plains Homestead Act of 1862 (HL)
7 WAYS TO TRAVEL: Land: Go Across the Great Plains and the Rockies. It took 6 months! Sea: Go around the Horn Cape Horn in South America Considered to be the most southern tip of S.A. It still took 6 months!
8 INCENTIVES FUR TRADERS: Moved to the Rockies Sold Beaver Pelts FARMERS: Moved to Oregon Free farmland in the Willamette Valley COTTON PLANTERS: Moved to Texas and carried slaves with them GOLD SEEKERS: In 1848, gold was discovered in California!
9 TIME PERIOD Explorers ~ Lewis and Clark Zebulon Pike Land Deals ~ Missouri Compromise Conflict ~ Sectionalism (Slavery vs. Industry) Ways to Go West ~ Mississippi and Missouri Rivers became very significant during this time period.
10 FAMOUS EXPLORERS: LEWIS AND CLARK (1804) (HL) President Jefferson sent them to explore the Louisiana Territory. They explored 8,000 miles. Sacakawea would join the group to become their guide. US would claim Oregon.
11 EXPLORERS ZEBULON PIKE (1806) (HL) Expeditioner, explorer, and hunter. A frontier businessman! Climbed the Rockies (they were his favorite!) Named a peak Pike s Peak
12 LAND DEALS MISSOURI COMPROMISE (1820) (HL) Missouri a slave state; Maine a free state
13 TIME PERIOD Explorers ~ Jim Bridger Land Deals ~ States that dealt with M.C. guidelines Erie Canal Conflict ~ Continued Sectionalism Ways to Go West ~ Waterways = Trade Trade = POWER Wagon Train Trails
14 EXPLORERS JIM BRIDGER (1824) (HL) A trapper, hunter, fisher, and explorer A trail guide to the West Went out to find the ocean Came across a huge body of water and mistook it for the Pacific. Actually stumbled across the Great Salt Lake!
15 LAND DEALS ERIE CANAL (1825) (HL) 1000 laborers will dig by hand 4 feet deep! Connected the North with the West Revolutionized trade and transportation
16 WAYS TO GO WEST The five major trails leading West were: Oregon Trail (1843) (HL) California Trail (1845) (HL) Santa Fe Trail (1821) (HL) Mormon Trail (1846) (HL) Old Spanish Trail (1830) (HL) Each took a specific route around and through the Rocky Mountains and/or the Sierra Nevadas, leading the wagon trail to a desired territory.
17 TRAILS The American Fur Company Created by John Jacob Aster Created a business relationship between clothing businesses and mountain men. Western fur traders and trappers Jedediah Smith, Manuel Lisa, Jim Bridger, and Jim Beckwourth After beaver pelt fashion died out (and the fact that the animal quantity didn t succeed either!), mountain men s stories back east lured people to Oregon Territory.
18 TRAILS Going west cost an average of $600 for a family of four. A man s salary was only $1.50 per day. Oregon Trail 2,000 mile long trail that stretched from places such as Independence, Missouri west into Oregon Country. Forked after Rocky Mountains One end location: Willamette Valley, Oregon Another end location: CALIFORNIA TRAIL, led to California.
19 TRAILS Santa Fe Trail Led from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. More a trade route, which successful travelers received high profits on the cargo they carried.
20 TRAILS Mormon Trail A group traveled west searching for religious freedom. Religious group was called Mormons and originated by Joseph Smith. Followed the Book of Mormon. Religious persecution killed Smith, and Brigham Young became the next leader. Chose Utah for their new home, near the Great Salt Lake. By 1860, there were about 40,000 Mormons in Utah.
21 TRAILS Old Spanish Trail A trade route that connected Santa Fe, New Mexico to Los Angeles, California. A very difficult and challenging trail. Explored by John C. Fremont. Called Old Spanish, since the territory was owned by the Spanish previously.
22 TIME PERIOD Explorers ~ John C. Fremont Land Deals ~ Annexation of Texas Conflict ~ Texas Revolution Spanish-American War Ways to Go West ~ Trails ~ Wagon Trains Oregon Trail and California Trail ~ Most important because of the GOLD RUSH!! Transcontinental Railroad Telegraph (Communication)
23 EXPLORERS JOHN C. FREMONT (1840 S) (HL) Explored the region between the Rockies and the Pacific Ocean Nicknamed The Pathfinder He led four expeditions South Pass Mapped a plateau in the Rockies Oregon Trail Find a trail NW of Missouri River, across Rockies, and into Oregon Great Basin to Pacific Coast Find a railroad route from Missouri to California didn t work! Created the first official map of the American West
24 LAND DEALS ANNEXATION OF TEXAS (1845) (HL) When James K. Polk (pro-slavery) was elected President, Congress passed a law approving the annexation of Texas (would be a slave state). Texas was still owned by Mexico! This brought war with Mexico. Free Soil Party (HL) (1848) Party born in reaction to the war with Mexico. They opposed the spread of slavery to the West. (They would accept it in the South)
25 WAR! The first major war/conflict driven by Manifest Destiny was war with Mexico. MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR ( ) (HL) Polk wanted to seize large amounts of Mexican land. Offered to buy CA and NM for $25 million Mexico refused This is where the Battle of Alamo comes in Americans will win the war by occupying Mexico s capital Mexico City!
26 The Texas Revolution In this section, you will need to write EVERYTHING that is in red. Use the space provided in your note packet.
27 Mexico vs. Texas Mexican Independence Father Miguel Hidalgo y Castilla led a rebellion of 80,000 that failed. Rebellion grew and eventually Mexico achieved independence. New Mexican gov t hired empresarios land agents to bring settlers to Texas. Settlers didn t always follow the law. Mexico was ruled by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Texas Independence 3/2/1836 (HL) Texas declared Independence from Mexico Named Sam Houston as leader of their Army. Battle of the Alamo February-March 1836 (HL) Texans surrounded for over two weeks. Eventually all were killed in battle. Santa Anna ordered the execution of 350 prisoners Battle of San Jacinto April 21, 1836 (HL) Texans captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign over control of Texas
28 Texas gains Independence Treaty of Velasco (May 14, 1836) (HL) The treaty created the Republic of Texas. Recognized by Britain, France, and eventually the U.S. Protection from Mexico = Texas Rangers Chuck Norris as Walker, Texas Ranger
29 Battle of the Alamo Clip
30 The Mexican American War
31 Manifest Destiny Many Americans had a belief in Manifest Destiny obvious fate The question needing an answer was that of slavery should it be allowed in new lands? Election of 1844 question was Texas both candidates wanted it to be a part of the U.S.
32 Acquiring New Land Britain and U.S. had agreed to occupy Oregon together. Many settlers wanted to join the U.S. A new border was drawn and U.S. took everything south of 49 th parallel. Oregon joined as a territory in 1848 Texas agreed to become part of the U.S in 1845 (HL) Mexican gov t = VERY upset Mexico still controlled other areas. Ended the mission system in CA and gave land to wealthy settlers
33 California Vaqueros cowboys who managed the land in CA Early California settlers = Californios Reputation of being extremely hospitable. Many new settlers began to call for Independence from Mexico.
34 Mexican-American War War began over territory dispute U.S. wanted more land, Mexico didn t want to give it up. Bear Flag Revolt June 14, 1846 (HL) Americans declared CA to be independent Led by John C. Fremont Goal was to keep CA independent, not join U.S. End of the War: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ~ February (HL) officially ended the war Mexican Cession increased the U.S. by 25% Cost: $15 Million Gadsden Purchase: U.S. Paid $10 million in exchange for parts of AZ and NM
35 LAND DEALS OREGON TERRITORY (1846) (HL) Over 500,000 people traveled the Oregon Trail throughout it s existence. The emigration lasted for several decades. Between 10-12% will die on the trail. Purchased from Great Britain.
36 LAND DEALS GADSDEN PURCHASE (1853) (HL) The US bought a little strip of land from Mexico for $10 million. It lies in southern Arizona and New Mexico. It was needed to build the southern route of another transcontinental railroad. KANSAS NEBRASKA ACT (1854) (HL) The transcontinental railroad wanted this territory to become a state. Will repeal the Missouri Compromise by stating the people get to decide if the state should be slave or free.
37 GROUPS GOING WEST DONNER PARTY (1846) (HL) 9 covered wagons set out West James Reed ignored the advice to take the safer route will take Hasting s Route This will take them 5 days instead of 2 in the desert! One group will become snowbound in the Sierra Nevadas. Some turned to cannibalism to survive. MORMONS (1847) (HL) Left Nauvoo, Illinois and headed West Brigham Young will convince them to settle at Salt Lake City.
38 OTHER LAND EXPANSIONS CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH (1848) (HL) There was a saw mill built for a man named Sutter. When milling, they found gold! Became known as Sutter s Mill (near Sacramento, CA) In 1849, 80,000 prospectors (the 49 ers) showed up to mine gold. The settlers established towns and cities (boomtowns) and sped up the drive for statehood.
39 CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH Gold first discovered by Sutter and James Marshall, a carpenter. Tried to keep it a secret but were unable to do so. Dec Polk mentions it in farewell address to Congress ,000 fortyniners gold seeking migrants come to California. Most who traveled, stopped in San Francisco first people (HL) ,000 people (HL) California Mining Camp
40 Staking a Claim Forty-niners would prospect search for gold, along the banks of shallow streams First person would stake the claim; groups worked together. Oftentimes, disputes would break out over who was first. Placer mining use pans to wash gold out of lose rock Some became very rich; MOST did not.
41 Mining Camp Life Wherever there were people, there was a camp. 95% of those in camps were men. Inflation was huge Many made wages off of the rush and not mining Samuel Brannan California s First Millionaire
42 Immigrants and Impact Immigrants Came from China, Europe, Mexico, and South America Chinese came to escape economic hardship (mid-1840 s) (HL) Many times, they were treated VERY poorly. Forced to pay higher taxes and were attacked. Many intended to go back home but never did. Levi Strauss stayed and made pants Population California was able to become a state after only two years Economy People discovered they could make a living farming and ranching. Distance made things difficult No way to get supplies in and out quickly
43 EXPANSIONS TO THE WEST TRANSCONTINENTAL TELEGRAPH (1861) (HL) In 1860 (HL), the Pony Express was the best form of communication. Employers wanted orphans (risky job) This only lasted 19 months! Replaced by the telegraph, which was invented by Samuel Morse (think Morse Code!)
44 EXPANSIONS TO THE WEST TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD (1869) (HL) Made settlement in the West much easier United the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railways Promontory Point, Utah Where the two railroads met. A golden spike is driven into the railway connecting the two.
45 STOP! 1. RECEIVE AN ENVELOPE DON T OPEN IT! 2. YOU ARE GOING TO TRY TO STRIKE IT RICH BY BECOMING A 49 ER! 3. YOU BEGIN YOUR TRIP TO CALIFORNIA WITH $ OPEN YOUR ENVELOPE
46 5. READ YOUR CHALLENGE OR LUCKY MOMENT OUT LOUD. 6. DON T FORGET TO ADD OR SUBTRACT YOUR MONEY! 7. RECEIVE MONEY FROM TEACHER. 8. STAND IN LINE FOR YOUR PAN AND MINERALS!
47 5. PAY FOR YOUR PAN AND SUPPLIES - $10 6. PAY FOR FOOD AND WATER - $10 FOOD AND WATER CAN WAIT BUT MUST BE PURCHASED ONCE BEFORE END OF CLASS! 7. PAY FOR EXTRA SCOOP (OPTIONAL) - $30 DON T HAVE ENOUGH $$? YOU MAY HAVE TO BORROW FROM A BUDDY!
48 ROUND ONE
49 8. BEGIN PANNING! YOU RE LOOKING FOR GOLD! ANYTHING ELSE, SIFT BACK INTO BOWL! GOOD LUCK!
50 AFTER FIRST ROUND OF PANNING DIDN T FIND ANYTHING?? * ADDITIONAL SCOOP - $15 * BORROW FROM BUDDY IF FUNDS AREN T AVAILABLE! GOLD FINDERS? * CASH IN FOR ANOTHER SCOOP * HOLD ON TO IT AND PAY $15 FOR ANOTHER SCOOP FIND A BELL?? * HOLD ON TO IT FOR A SPECIAL OPPORTUNITY!
51 ROUND TWO
52 OKAY! TIME TO STOP!!! DID YOU FIND ANY GOLD?? NO! STAND BESIDE #1 BOX 1-5 PIECES! PICK 1 PIECE OF PAPER 6-9 PIECES! PICK 2 PIECES OF PAPER AND CHOOSE ONE 10+ PIECES! PICK 3 PIECES OF PAPER AND CHOOSE ONE BELL-FINDERS! GET READY FOR A 50/50 CHANCE!
53 #1 BOX: NOT QUITE THE RISK-TAKER, WHICH ENDS UP MAKING IT SAFER. YOU ARE NEITHER RICH, NOR POOR. YOU BECOME THE OWNER OF A GENERAL STORE! CHOOSE A PRIZE FROM BOX #2
54 #2 BOX: EVEN WITH GOOD LUCK, YOU ENDED UP LOSING A BUCK! GOLD FEVER OVERCOMES YOUR CHANCE AT WEALTH, NOW IT S BACK TO STARVATION AND FILTH! CHOOSE A PRIZE FROM BOX #1
55 #3 BOX: YOUR RISKS TURN OUT TO BE GREAT! YOU SHOULD BE HAPPY WITH THE WAY YOU PLAYED! YOU STRUCK IT RICH WITH YOUR GOLD LIVE LIFE TO THE FULLEST, UNTIL YOU RE GOOD AND OLD! PICK A PRIZE FROM BOX #3!
56 BELL-FINDERS! YOUR SIGHT IS STRONG. YOU SPOTTED A TREASURE. NOW IT S YOUR CHOICE TO GO ON FURTHER YOU ARE GOING TO GO ON CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING BOXES: 1 2
57 YOU FOUND THE BELL! UNFORTUNATELY, GOLD FEVER FOUND YOU! YOU LOSE EVERYTHING!!!
58 YOU FOUND THE BELL! YOU HAVE STRUCK IT RICH, AGAIN! ONE FREE ASSIGNMENT FOR HISTORY!
59 As you are beginning to see, 49 ers had it rough This gold-mining was hard stuff Not everyone struck it rich! Even those who did find gold may have ended up penniless in just a quick minute. Everything was by chance! For your assignment, write down a quick reflection of your gold-panning experience from today This is your ticket out the door! Have a GREAT and PROFITABLE weekend
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