Monroe Doctrine. Becoming The World s Police

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1 Monroe Doctrine Becoming The World s Police

2 Revolutions Revolutions in Latin America Revolts against Spain Simon Bolivar of Venezuela = George Washington in Latin America President Monroe wanted to secure Latin American independence President Monroe... We would view an interference [in Latin America] on the part of European powers as an attack on ourselves

3 A Warning December 2nd, 1823 = Monroe Doctrine speech U.S. would not interfere in European colonies in Latin America BUT if European powers try to reclaim countries who won independence, U.S. would consider it dangerous to our peace and safety Mixed reaction from U.S. politicians and citizens

4 American Economy From Nationalism to Revolution

5 Clay s Ideas Henry Clay -- Representative (KY) = nationalist Wanted to increase federal involvement in economy American System National Bank - provide stable currency Tariff (tax on imported goods) - to protect manufacturing industry National transportation system - to unite west, south and north

6 Tariff of 1816 British goods were sold for cheap in U.S. Tariff protected American Manufacturers 25% duty (tax) on imported factory goods Northern Manufacturers supported tariff Southern Planters opposed North vs. South

7 Transportation Revolution 1817 Let us bind the republic together with a perfect system of roads and canals -- John C. Calhoun Congress wanted Federal aid to build roads President Madison vetoed bill -- Federal gov t did not have constitutional power to build roads in states New York built Erie Canal in connected Hudson River & Lake Erie

8 Transportation Revolution Canals & Steam Boats Due to Erie Canal other states began building canals Saved time & money in transportation Canals and waterways connected Illinois to Atlantic Ocean First steamboat used to carry heavy good upstream

9 Transportation Revolution Locomotives Used commercially in U.S. around 1830 First steam locomotive LOST race against horse-drawn train By 1840 s train problems were solved & 9,000 miles of train tracks were laid in U.S.

10 The Market Revolution Easier to transport goods across country Created first national markets Farmers & manufacturers made more $$ Small towns no longer isolated Increased size of many small towns

11 Industrial Revolution New machines allowed for mass production Eli Whitney Created interchangeable parts in the manufacture of firearms Created Cotton Gin which easily separates cotton fibers from seeds

12 Industrial Revolution Economic Reversal all areas of country enjoying prosperity Manufacturers borrowed $$ from banks Banks lent $$ to anyone & everyone Bank of U.S. ordered all banks to demand loan repayment & banks exchange their paper $$ for gold & silver Few banks were able to do so = Panic of 1819 = bank failures, falling land prices & foreclosures. Led to Economic Depression Ended Era of Good Feelings

13 Andrew Jackson Man of the People?: Political, Social and Economic Crises

14 Missouri Compromise 1819 Missouri territory applied for statehood Missouri had 10,000 slaves 11 Slave States & 11 Free States Henry Clay made compromise Missouri = Slave State... Maine = Free State Slavery banned in Louisiana Territory north of Missouri s southern boundary

15

16 Election of 1824 Voting rights expanded Majority of white men can vote People did not want Congress electing President Andrew Jackson (Tenn) vs Henry Clay (SC) vs. John Quincy Adams (Mass)

17 Election of 1824 Jackson received most popular votes No candidate won a majority of Electoral Votes House of Representative chooses President Clay supported Adams -- Adams won election Called Corrupt Bargain by Jackson

18 JQA Presidency Very successful Secretary of State Supported creation of canals, roads, national universities & system of weights and measures Did not compromise with Congress = Unsuccessful President

19 Election of 1828 Andrew Jackson Old Hickory VS. John Quincy Adams Election focused on candidates personalities not issues JQA was a snob who wasted money on gambling Jackson was a murderer for killing a man in a duel Jackson s wife & mother were defamed during election

20 Election of 1828 All white men could vote in 1828 Jackson swept popular vote and electoral vote Jackson = self made man --- Social Elevation Do not need to be born rich to be President

21 Government of the People Jackson = President of the people 20,000 citizens went to White House to celebrate Jackson s election Citizens broke windows, and china; caused fights; got drunk; etc, etc Big Block Of Cheese Day -- during party Jackson was given a 1400 pound block of cheese as a gift Gave Block Of Cheese to citizens at party

22 Government of the People Spoils System Rewarding supporters with government jobs To the victor belong the spoils Rotation in Office Periodic replacement of officeholders To remind gov t they worked for the people

23 Jackson s Indian Policy White farmers wanted Native lands in Southeast and West Jackson called Natives a barrier to the waves of population and civilization... rolling westward Said Indian Removal was a humanitarian issue Move them to area where their white brothers will not bother them

24 Jackson s Indian Policy Indian Removal Act Natives East of Mississippi will be moved to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) For as long as grass grows and water runs... [the land] will be yours forever -- Jackson to Native Americans

25 Jackson s Indian Policy Second Seminole War ( ) Due to Indian Removal Act U.S. Army captured/killed/removed 3,000 Natives 1,500 U.S. soldiers killed Natives moved to Indian Territory

26 Jackson s Indian Policy Worcester v. Georgia (1835) Chief Justice John Marshall ruled in favor of Worcester & Natives State of Georgia had limited to no power over Native American tribes Native Americans were not considered U.S. citizens President Jackson & Georgia ignored Supreme Court Cherokee Indians signed land over to U.S. & given 3 years to move west

27 Jackson s Indian Policy Trail of Tears By 1838, Cherokee Indians did not move west Federal troops forced Indians west 4,000 Cherokee died on the 800 mile trek

28 Nullification Crisis 1828 Congress doubled Tariff tax (50% tax on imported goods) -- Tariff of Abominations Southern Planters outraged -- accused Congress of promoting Northern Manufacturing Vice President John C. Calhoun wrote an anonymous letter outlining Southern position Argued states had the right to nullify any act of congress they believe unconstitutional (Doctrine of Nullification)

29 Nullification Crisis November 1832 South Carolina declared the 1828 and 1832 tariffs null and void Threatened to secede from U.S. if gov t tried to collect tariffs within South Carolina Siding with South Carolina, John Calhoun resigned as Vice President

30 Nullification Crisis Jackson threatened Civil War if South Carolina secedes In 1833 Henry Clay proposed a compromise tariff that lowered rates over 10 years Calhoun & SC accepted 1833 tariff Civil War avoided. WHEW!!!

31 Jackson V Bank Jackson thought Bank of U.S. was a dangerous monopoly helping the rich and hurting the poor Did not think rich should be able to control Bank Election of Henry Clay vs. Andrew Jackson Clay wanted to recharter Bank in 1832 Jackson vetoed the Bill Voters agreed with Jackson... Jackson won 2nd term in office

32 Jackson V Bank Jackson moved to shut down National Bank Took deposits out of National Bank Put deposits in State Banks loyal to Democratic Party Pet Banks

33 Jackson V Bank Nicholas Biddle = President of National Bank Tightened credit to force financial crisis Tried to show that the Bank was good for public Jackson argued... National Bank can be used to harm public American public agreed with Jackson National Bank collapsed in 1836

34 Panic of 1837 State (Pet) Banks gave out more $$ than they had in gold Too much $$ in circulation Prices for land, food, goods,etc increased = INFLATION Specie Circular = Treasury only accept gold or silver to buy land = land sales plunged People demanded banks exchange paper $ for specie Hundreds of Banks failed because they could not give out gold for $$

35 Rise of the Whigs Whig Party created in 1834 by Jackson enemies Martin Van Buren (Jacksonian Democrat) elected President in 1836 President during Panic of 1837 Whigs nominated William Henry Harrison in 1840 Tippecanoe and Tyler too!!! & Van Van is a used up man!! Harrison (234 EVs) vs. Van Buren (60 EVs)

36 Fall of Tippecanoe Harrison was a rich land owner, college graduate Portrayed during Election of 1840 as a hardworking farmer who lived in a log cabin Citizens thought he was of the people and simple Wanted to prove citizens & political opponents wrong Gave intellectual 3 hour long Inaugural speech in the cold and rain Died of pneumonia 4 weeks into office. John Tyler took over as President

37

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