Deserts. the Empty Quarter is the largest sand desert in the world.

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1 Saudi Arabia

2 GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES

3 Saudi Arabia Part of the Arabian Peninsula Saudi Arabia is one fourth the size of the United States Deserts cover much of the east and south There are mountain ranges in the southwest There are no rivers or lakes The Red Sea borders the west and the Persian Gulf borders the east Largest oil reserve known to man.

4 Deserts These deserts have historically provided the Middle East with natural barriers against invasion Rub al-khali, or Empty Quarter, in southern Saudi Arabia. the Empty Quarter is the largest sand desert in the world.

5 Wadis Instant Springs

6 Wadis Wadis are dry stream beds that fill with water only after rainfall in a desert or steppe region.

7 Desert Oasis: Water at a Premium!

8 OASIS Oasis is a place where water comes to the surface in desert area. "oasis" is believed to come from an ancient Egyptian word, "wah," meaning "fertile place in the desert."

9 Religion Islam-The Big Picture The Prophet Muhammad receives the revelation of the Qu ran in 610 Qu ran is the holy book of Islam The two holiest cities of Islam are Makkah & Medina Medina Makkah

10 Pilgrims On The Road to And Camped Outside of Makkah P i l

11 Al-Haram Mosque Holds the Kaaba

12 The Kaaba Located in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, the Kaaba is the most sacred site for Muslims. A Muslim must take the hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca at least once in his/her life.

13

14 Language Arabic

15 Calligraphy Revered art in Saudi Arabia Primary subject matter has historically been the Holy Qur an

16 Daily Life

17 Climate of country Temperatures can reach over 110 degrees Fahrenheit in the desert in the summer, In the winter temperatures in the north and central parts of the country can drop below freezing. Very little rain, only about four inches a year on average.

18 Fresh Groundwater Sources

19 Desalinization Plants

20

21 Sports Soccer, camel racing, volleyball, swimming, and basketball. Camels start racing when they are two years old. They practice running every day.

22

23 History

24 Saudi Arabia An Ancient Trade Center Located between the two great centers of civilization, the Nile River Valley and Mesopotamia The Birth of Islam Year 610, Muhammad, received a message from God in Makkah 622, the Prophet led his followers to Medina The Islamic Empire 100 years after the birth of Islam, the Islamic Empire extended from Spain to parts of India and China Caliph religious and political leaders of the empire or caliphate

25 Saudi Arabia 1902, Abdul Aziz captured Riyadh & set on a 30-year campaign to unify the Arabian Peninsula The modern Saudi state was founded in 1932 by King Abdul- Aziz Housed the Kuwaiti Royal family and 400,000 refugees after Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990 Allowed Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait during Desert Storm in The presence of US troops on Saudi soil after the liberation of Kuwait became a source of tension between the royal family and the public until all operational US troops left the country in 2003

26 Government of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia is a Monarchy Abdallah bin Abdul Aziz al-saud is the King and Prime Minister Islamic (sharia) legal system To vote 21 years of age; male National symbol: palm tree surmounting two crossed swords

27 Population: 26.6 million Includes 5.5 million non-nationals Ethnic groups: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10% 82% of total population Urban

28 Desert Bedouins

29 Food and People Most popular food in Saudi Arabia is kabsa which is rice and meat Arabic tea is also a famous custom Some family members live in separate houses, but many extended families live together.

30 Women Women cannot vote or be elected to high political positions. Women will be able to vote and run in the 2015 local elections Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that prohibits women from driving. There is evidence that many women in Saudi Arabia do not want radical change Niqab

31 Saudi Oil Fields & Refineries

32 Saudi Arabia 20% of the world's proven oil reserves Largest of any country Oil industry 45% of economy

33 Leading U. S. Oil Suppliers

34 Agriculture Land useable for farming: 1.67% Exports wheat, dates, dairy products, eggs, fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables and flowers to markets around the world

35 Arabian Peninsula Saudi Arabia Oman Yemen Persian Gulf States Kuwait Bahrain Qatar United Arab Emirates

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