Deserts. Sahara (North Africa) & Arabian Desert

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1 MIDDLE EAST

2 Middle East Climate

3 Deserts Sahara (North Africa) & Arabian Desert

4 Desert Landscape Sand dunes 15% of Sahara Rocky desert 85% of Sahara

5 Areas With Freshwater Areas with Mediterranean Climate Same climate as So. Cal. Rainy winter, Dry summer On Med. coast above 32 o N

6 Areas With Water Mountains Atlas Mtns. Zagros Mtns. Yemen

7 Mountains of Yemen

8 Areas With Water River Valleys Nile River Tigris & Euphrates

9 River Valleys Ancient Civilizations Nile Valley - Egypt

10 LANGUAGES Arabic Originated in Arabian Peninsula South of Taurus & Zagros Mtns.

11 Arabic

12 LANGUAGES Non-Arab Mountainous North Turkish Farsi in

13 LANGUAGES Hebrew in.

14 ISLAM Followers are Muslims Began with Muhammad Lived ~ 600 AD Born in Mecca (Saudi Arabia) Holiest City

15 Five Pillars of Islam 1. Make a profession of faith There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His prophet

16 PILLARS OF ISLAM 2. Pray 5x/day towards Mecca 3. Charity

17 PILLARS OF ISLAM 4. Daytime fasting during Ramadan 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca

18 Islam Division Sunni Muslims Most Muslim countries Shi ite Muslims Iran, Iraq

19 THE MAGHREB 3 Countries: M.A.T. Were French Colonies until 1950s Atlas Mtns. Med. Climate Sahara

20 ATLAS MOUNTAINS Over 13,000 in Highest mtns

21 MOROCCO Strait of Gibraltar

22 MOROCCO Casablanca

23 EGYPT Most Populated Nile River Water supply Floods Deposited fertile silt

24 Nile River Valley 95% of Egypt s pop.

25 Aswan High Dam & Lake Nasser Benefits: Electricity Year-round irrigation More ag production Benefits of Dam:

26 Aswan High Dam & Lake Nasser Negative Effects: Silt trapped. No more floods depositing fertile silt Med Sea fishing

27 Cairo Largest city Only subway

28 Giza Pyramids

29 Alexandria 2 nd largest city Summer

30 Suez Canal Mediterranean Red Sea Built 1860s By Brit & French 1956 Egypt gained control Tolls

31 Sinai Peninsula Mt. Sinai

32 Mt. Sinai Moses 10 Commandments

33 LEBANON Mediterranean Climate No desert

34 LEBANON Mountains (10,000 ) Cedar Forests

35 LEBANON Beirut - capital

36 LEBANON Ancient Home of the Phoenicians Became Christian Arab Conquest, 700 AD Brought Islam Under French control 1920s-1940s French is the 2 nd language

37 LEBANON Diverse population 60% Muslim 40% Christian

38 LEBANON Civil War 1980s Christians vs. Muslims Emigration of Christians Peaceful now

39 ISRAEL 1/50 the size of Calif. Unique religion/language of the Mid East

40 Israel s People 80% Jewish, Hebrew-speaking

41 ISRAEL S PEOPLE 20% Muslim Arabs

42 ISRAEL Country est Historically called Palestine Med. Sea in west Water Features in east Sea of Galilee Main source of freshwater Jordan River Dead Sea

43 DEAD SEA 1300 below sea level. Lowest elevation.. Extremely salty

44 Dead Sea

45 ISRAEL S CLIMATE North ½ Med climate Rainy in winter South ½ - Negev Desert

46 Negev Desert in South

47 The Promised Land of the Jews God promised Palestine to Abraham s Descendants Jews are Abraham s Descendants Jerusalem Jewish Capital King Solomon s temple Destroyed in 70 A.D. Western Wall remains Holiest Place for Jews

48 Jerusalem Dome of the Rock Holy for Muslims Muhammad rose to heaven

49 Jerusalem Holiest Place for Christians Jesus death (crucifixion) & resurrection

50 Arab-Jewish Conflict Britain ruled 1920s 1940s UN plan to divide Palestine Jewish state ( Israel ) (green on map) Est Arab state ( Palestine ) (yellow on map) Not accepted by Arabs

51 Arab-Jewish Conflict Both believe Palestine should be theirs Promised land for Jews Arabs lived there s AD

52 ARAB-JEWISH WARS Israel conquered additional land after 1948 West Bank Gaza Strip

53 JORDAN Desert Petra

54

55 SYRIA Civil War 2011-Present (2016) 3-way war Govt, Rebels, & ISIS ( Islamic State ) ISIS Group of Islamic extremists Want strict Islamic law Conquering much of Syria & Iraq Violence against: Christians Moderate Muslims

56 SYRIA S CIVIL WAR Mass Migration of Refugees 4 mln left Syria (20% of population) Many trying to go to Europe Esp. Germany

57 IRAQ Mesopotamia T & E Rivers World s first: Agriculture Cities (Babylon )

58 IRAQ Was led by Saddam Hussein Overthrown in U.S. invasion 2003 ISIS controls parts of Iraq

59 ARABIAN PENINSULA Saudi Arabia Yemen Oman United Arab Emirates Qatar Bahrain Kuwait

60 Desert Nomads Bedouins Herders of

61

62 PERSIAN GULF 60% of World s Oil #1 Saudi Arabia

63 Oil Exports from the Persian Gulf Exported to: Europe & Japan USA (12% of U.S. oil demand)

64 PERSIAN GULF CITIES Oil Wealth Rapid Urban Development

65 DUBAI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES World s tallest building

66 DUBAI Incredible shopping malls

67 TURKEY In Europe & Asia

68 BOSPORUS STRAIT Europe Asia

69 ISTANBUL On the Bosporus Old name: Constantinople Center for Christianity until 1400s

70 TURKEY S CLIMATE Mostly Mediterranean No desert Xlnt Agriculture

71 Iran Old name = Persia 1979 Revolution Relations with USA Trying to develop Nuclear Weapons?

72 AFGHANISTAN Desert & Mtns (25,000 ) Difficult to conquer or control

73 Afghan People Muslim, but not Arab Pashto Language Very Poor Opium

74 AFGHANISTAN HISTORY Ruled by Taliban, 1990s Permitted al-qaeda training bases Osama bin Laden founded/funded Al-Qaeda From Saudi Arabia Killed 2011

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