Palestine and the Mideast Crisis. Israel was founded as a Jewish state in 1948, but many Palestinian Arabs refused to recognize it.

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1 Palestine and the Mideast Crisis Israel was founded as a Jewish state in 1948, but many Palestinian Arabs refused to recognize it.

2 Palestine and the Mideast Crisis (cont.) After World War I, many Jews migrated to Palestine, the area Zionists claimed to be their promised land. In 1947 the United Nations declared that Palestine should be divided into a Jewish state and an Arab state. The Muslim neighbors invaded the new Jewish state. The invasion was unsuccessful, but the Arab states still refused to recognize Israel.

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4 Palestine and the Mideast Crisis (cont.) After coming to power in Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser seized control of the Suez Canal Company, which was controlled by Great Britain and France, starting the Suez War of The United States and the Soviet Union both supported Egypt, forcing Great Britain, France, and Israel to withdraw. After the war, Nasser promoted Pan-Arabism, hoping to unite all Arabic-speaking peoples.

5 Palestine and the Mideast Crisis (cont.) The conflict between Israel and other states in the Middle East continued to escalate, and in 1967 Egypt imposed a blockade against Israeli shipping. As a result of the Six-Day War, Israel seized the Sinai Peninsula, territory on the West Bank of Jordan, and the Golan Heights, tripling the size of its territory.

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7 Palestine and the Mideast Crisis (cont.) In 1973 Egypt and Syria led a surprise attack on Israel during the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. In connection with the war, the Organization of Oil Producing Countries (OPEC) announced large price increases to foreign countries, leading to serious oil shortages and economic problems in the West.

8 Palestine and the Mideast Crisis (cont.) In 1978 U.S. president Jimmy Carter met with President Anwar el-sadat of Egypt and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin at Camp David in the United States. The result was the Camp David Accords, an agreement to sign an Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty Israel gave back the Sinai Peninsula.

9 The Ongoing Crisis The turmoil in the Middle East continues into the twenty-first century.

10 The Ongoing Crisis (cont.) In 1964 the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed to represent Palestinian interests. PLO political leader Yasir Arafat headed a guerrilla movement called al-fatah. Palestinian Arabs became increasingly frustrated by the 1980s and led an intifada in Israeli territory.

11 The Ongoing Crisis (cont.) Through the Oslo Peace Accords of 1993, Israel agreed that the PLO would control a semi-independent area. In return, the PLO recognized the Israeli state. In 2006 the electoral victory by majority members of Hamas brought new obstacles to peace with their position that rejects Israel s right to exist. Iran experienced an Islamic revolution after the country became rich from oil revenues.

12 The Ongoing Crisis (cont.) Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini led an opposition that caused the government to collapse. In 1979 Khomeini implemented an Islamic republic and restored Islamic law. Militants held 52 Americans hostage in the U.S. embassy for over a year.

13 Hussein waged a brutal war against Iran in The war ended with a cease-fire in The Ongoing Crisis (cont.) Saddam Hussein led Iraq beginning in Iran and Iraq have long had a tense relationship. Iranians are mostly Shia Muslims, and Iraqi leaders under Saddam Hussein were mostly Sunni Muslims.

14 The Ongoing Crisis (cont.) In 1990 Hussein sent troops to seize Kuwait, located at the head of the Persian Gulf. The United States led the international coalition that freed Kuwait and hoped that Hussein would be overthrown. In 1979 the Soviets invaded Afghanistan and occupied the country for 10 years.

15 The Ongoing Crisis (cont.) The United States and Pakistan supported anti-communist rebels, such as the Taliban, who eventually ousted the Soviet Union. The Taliban took control of Kabul in 1996, and two years later controlled two-thirds of Afghanistan. The Taliban provided support for Osama bin Laden and al- Qaeda, which recruited Muslims to drive Westerners out of Muslim nations.

16 The Ongoing Crisis (cont.) Osama bin Laden led the attacks of September 11, 2001, in the United States. The United States retaliated by leading a coalition of forces against the Taliban in Afghanistan. The Taliban was replaced in 2001, by a moderate government, which still faces warfare among tribal groups and a revival of Taliban forces.

17 Saddam Hussein s supporters, foreign terrorists, and Islamic militants all battled the American-led forces. The Ongoing Crisis (cont.) In 2002 U.S. president George Bush threatened to remove Saddam Hussein on the grounds that Iraq had chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. In 2003 a mainly U.S.-led army invaded Iraq and captured Saddam Hussein.

18 The Ongoing Crisis (cont.) A new Iraqi government was formed in 2005, but has been unable to create a unified state for the Shia Muslims, Sunni Muslims, and ethnic Kurds. In 2007 President Bush called for an increase of U.S. soldiers to help end the violence in Iraq.

19 Society and Culture Islamic fundamentalism has impacted Middle Eastern society, especially women s roles.

20 Society and Culture (cont.) Islamic fundamentalist ideas began in Iran under Ayatollah Khomeini. There was a return to traditional Muslim beliefs, clothing styles, social practices, and legal system. Early Muslim women participated in government and held many social rights. Beginning in the 1970s, there was a shift back toward more traditional roles for women.

21 Challenges in the MIDDLE EAST In 1973, OPEC reduced oil supplies and raised prices, causing economic problems in the West. Terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, led to a war in Afghanistan. In 2006, Palestinians chose Hamas to lead them, a group that rejects Israel s right to exist. Efforts to establish a stable, democratic government in Iraq continue following the removal of Saddam Hussein from power by a United States-led coalition.

22 IMPACTS ON SOCIETIES in Africa and the Middle East In Africa, constant tension exists between traditional ways and Western culture. African women have made political and economic gains, but inequalities remain. African artists search for ways to balance Western techniques with traditional art. Islamic Fundamentalism has impacted Middle Eastern society, especially women s roles.

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