Lecture - The Protestant Reformation

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1 Lecture - The Protestant Reformation A. Causes of the Protestant Reformation Basis - not a single event but a combination of events 1. Relationship with the Renaissance * people began to question the authority of the church * this new awakening caused a search for the truth atmosphere, a re-examination of religious beliefs 2. Conflicts - national rulers and the church * rise of nationalism - new national rulers wanted their subjects to be loyal to the state and not the church * interference of the clergy in political matters * nationalist feelings - resentment toward the church as it siphoned off money and took it out of the country to Rome 3. Protests against church practices of the time * sale of indulgences - (sell forgiveness of sins) church needed money to defend and enlarge territories + build large and elaborate administrative quarters as a show of power * originally to get people into prayer - to pay for Bishop * no evidence in the bible for curing of sins by indulgences * eventually increase due to need to finance St. Peter s Basilica * sold for: personal forgiveness, for relative who had died, * taxes & feudal obligations, eg. Tithe - individuals had to give 1/10 of their income to the church - had to work given # of days on church lands - pay to have baby baptised, etc. * Catholic church corrupt - no education but based on sphere of influence

2 B. Beginnings of Protestantism 1. Early Challenges to Papal rule * John Wycliffe - English Protested the way some of the clergy gained wealth Felt the church owning property led to corruption Translated bible from Latin to English, more could interpret themselves Before church said only it could interpret the scriptures Said Pope could not excommunicate or grant indulgences Caused an uprising of the peasants in parliament and church stopped the translations A strong advocate of separation of church and state *John Huss - Bohemia Followed the views of Wycliffe, Christ the only head of the church Excommunicated 1410 by Pope, before council of religious leaders Condemned for heresy and burned at the stake in Protestant revolt in Germany (Tetzel group) *Martin Luther - German Translated bible Bothered by the indulgence idea (Tetzel) placed 95 theses or propositions on the church door telling of the abuses of the church as was commonly done to invite theological debate Went on to declare: - Christian truth only in Bible (people find for themselves) - Denounced fasts, pilgrimages and saints - Reduced 7 sacraments to 2 (baptism, communion) - Clergy should marry

3 - Monasticism should be eliminated - Called for princes of Germany to take temporary power over religion in order to drive through reforms - Many princes like this idea (Church v State) Diet of Worms Edit of Worms Renounced as a heretic and excommunicated from the Holy Roman Empire (Charles V), but hidden in safe seclusion by the Elector of Saxony & other German princes (here he translates the Bible into German) - Lutheranism (or anti-catholicism) raged across Germany. Many preachers picking up of Luther s theme that anyone can see what is right for themselves. - Peasant revolts demanded controlled rents and oppressive manorial lords (Luther did not side with them) as these revolts became more social than religious (Munster rule of saints polygamy.. hemmed in by armies for a year) Germany in a state of revolution many individual duchies, princely states, margravites (dynastic monarchies) Charles V trying to control Holy Roman Empire - Anabaptists emerge Led to Lutheranism - 4 Principles i. Justification by faith alone - individual justification

4 ii. iii. iv. Religious doctrine should be based on scripture not teaching of religious leaders The church is the whole community of Christian believers (eg. Every man is a priest) Christian living is serving God in one s everyday life A man did not earn grace by doing good, he did the good because he possessed the grace of God 3. Spread of the movement throughout Europe *John Calvin - Switzerland, the Netherlands, Southern Germany ( ) Wrote the Institutes of the Christian Religion Doctrine of predestination - some are chosen to go to heaven but all responsible to live by Christian principles - Very militant, uncompromising, perfectionist Puritan. i. Simplified religious ceremonies, ii proposed local laymen govern church, iii commend the hard work of businessmen iv Theocracy - gov t led by elected religious leaders (Christianize the state) - Geneva became the model for this state (Protestant Rome) - spreads across Europe: France- Hugenots, John Knox Scotland, Presbyterianism, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, U.S.A Ulrich Zwingli Swiss Protestant Reformer - Wrote 67 articles to city council of Zurich, calling for church reforms - Images/relics removed from churches - Clerical marriage allowed - Monastaries dissolved; money used to fund education - Met with Luther in 1529 to unite Prot. Faiths - They disagreed on Jesus words at last supper o Luther = this is my body meant was Jesus body

5 o Zwingli = my really meant signify - Agreed to disagree *Henry VIII - England ( ) Wanted to set up independent national church Why? i. Wanted to re-marry ii wanted church lands (monasteries $$) iii wanted to free country from political activity of some churchmen iv wanted to increase power over the English people Other details: Annulment would have been simple if not for his wife, Catherine of Aragon, being aunt to HRE Charles V, who had his hand full of protestant troubles in Germany. If Pope annuls it and the Church disses Charles V who is the defender of the faith in Europe = Charles not happy with Pope. Not a good idea. Pope refuses, Henry does it anyways Parliament passes Act of Supremacy declaring English king to be the Protector and Only Supreme Head of the Church and the Clergy of England. Until 1547 his son Edward VI succeeded (Protestant powers came to fore) Dies in Mary (daughter of Catherine of Aragon) succeeded and tried to re- Catholicize England. Leads to more anti-catholicism. She dies in Elizabeth (daughter of Anne Boleyn) succeeded and England becomes Protestant and true form of Anglicanism emerges. (Very Lutheran, with some Catholic elements still)

6 C. Reforms within the Catholic Church (Counter-Reformation) Usually refers to the 16 th century reform movements within the church Objectives: >To strengthen the church, >Check the spread of the protestant belief 1. Headed by Jesuits *Established schools - for training and identifying of desired doctrines *Taught strict obedience, idea of self-discipline, did missionary work, campaigned against heretics, travelled to foreign lands to spread Catholic teachings - became very academic, allowing wealthy families to highly educate youth Church gained many well educated, modernized leaders. 2. Peace of Augsburg treaty between Charles V and the Lutheran princes of Germany. Officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire. People could choose and move to location that suited their beliefs. - it did not recognized Calvinism or Anabaptists as religions (.. Thirty Years War) 3. Council of Trent > met between *Restatement of Catholic beliefs > Pope earthly head of church, no man allowed to interpret bible differently from the church, idea of 7 sacraments correct, salvation by faith alone not good enough (need faith + good works) 4. Reforms introduced *control of the sale of indulgences, checking the abuses of monastery life, improvement of education for the priesthood, more efficient church administration

7 D. Religious Wars 1. Thirty Years War (eventually involved all of Europe) Complicated Religious-Political struggle involved several countries and religious groups Side 1- Protestants wanted right to worship as they pleased German princes wanted greater independence from Roman Holy Empire some rulers feared expansion of Holy Roman Empire Side 2 - Catholics wanted to defend the faith to check the spread of Protestantism wanted to keep control of the German princes 2. Treaty of Westphalia (1648) *ended the 30 years war *Provisions i. Calvinism to have same status as Catholicism and Lutheranism, ii. Each prince could choose a religion for his territory, iii. Princes in the German states were free to handle own diplomatic affairs, iv. Some land changed hands Result > led to greater religious toleration Divided Germany up into small independent states Divided Europe into definite separate states. Put an end to religious wars on European continent. E. Results of the Reformation

8 1. Religious i. End of a single Christian Church ii. Undesirable conditions within Catholic church eliminated iii. Christianity spread to many distant lands iv. Education > protestant universities formed 2. Political / Social i. Loss of the power for the Pope ii. Rise of the Nation-state system, an era in the growth of sovereign states iii. Growth of Capitalism > rising middle class due mostly to trade iv. Breakdown of the feudal system, new political leaders emerge from successful merchants v. Investment > setting up of companies vi. Attitude toward work changing > Calvin vii. Political leaders begin to influence church (rather than vice-versa) Words to define re: Protestant Reformation 1. dogma 6. Purgatory 2. Heresy 7. Penance 3. Secular 8. Papacy 4. Indulgences 9. Simony 5. Excommunicate

9 Words to define re: Protestant Reformation 1. dogma - prescribed religious beliefs 2. Heresy - statements of opinion or doctrine contrary to beliefs of the church 3. Secular - separation of church & state 4. Indulgences - pardon for sins committed during a person s lifetime 5. Excommunicate - to expel a person from the church and deprive him of his sacraments 6. Purgatory- a place to which the souls of sinners who are making up for their sins go before going to heaven 7. Penance - certain acts which the priest requires a confessed sinner to perform before his sins can be forgiven 8. Papacy - the position or period of office of the Pope (Latin papa pope ) 9. Simony - selling of church offices, raising rents on church lands, increasing fees for spiritual services rendered by the clergy > to solve church s financial problems

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