The Reformation. The Reformation. Forerunners 11/12/2013

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1 The Reformation Began during the early sixteenth century Protest against the corruption in the Roman Catholic Church Equal authority of tradition and Scripture Papal infallibility Indulgences (the sale of grace to obtain heaven) Reformers asserted the authority of the Word of God The Reformation PHRASES ASSOCIATED WITH THE REFORMATION sola scriptura Scripture alone sola fide Faith alone sola gratia Grace alone solo Christo Christ alone soli deo gloria glory to God alone Forerunners Efforts during the sixteenth century were directed against its most visible evils. Only a few men recognized the need for doctrinal purity. Bible is the sole authority for the Christian faith. One of the strongest voices was John Wycliffe. During Wycliffe s day, the papacy was at Avignon and under French Domination England and France were engaged in the Hundred Years War ( ) Any support of the pope was tantamount to supporting the French. Long associated with University of Oxford Called the Morning Star of the Reformation Preached Christ as the only head of the church Upheld the Bible as the supreme authority for all believers clergy as well as laity Initiated the translation of the Bible from Latin into English 1

2 John Huss 1. In became dean of the philosophy faculty at the University of Prague 2. Preached many times a week in his native tongue (Czech) a. Had to read his Bible daily b. Through his study, Huss realized that the church of his day had corrupted the Scriptures 3. Began to teach that the Bible was the only true source of instruction in Christian behavior 4. Influenced by s writings John Huss 1. stressed the role of the Bible as authority in the church, 2. lifted biblical preaching to an important status in church services 3. preached against the sale of indulgences 4. denounced the often immoral and extravagant lifestyles of the clergy (including the pope himself) 5. made the bold claim that Christ alone is head of the church. Martin Luther Strict discipline characterized early life University of Erfurt Acquainted with Scholastic and classical studies saw complete Bible for first time Decided to become a monk after dramatic experience of almost being struck by lightning Through study he discovered that The just shall live by faith. Sola fide Controversy 1514 Pope Leo X launches campaign to complete building of St. Peter s Basilica in Rome Funds drained from the church s treasury. Pope Leo X St. Peter s Basilica 2

3 1. Pope Leo X was born Giovanni de Medici in Raised in Italy's most culturally sophisticated city, Florence, as part of the prestigious de' Medici family, Pope Leo X a. patrons of the arts b. benefactors of scholarship c. masters of political intrigue. 3. Immediately demonstrated his appreciation of art by initiating a massive building project to beautify the Vatican. 4. encouraged the sale of "Indulgences" a. a promise of relief from eternal penalties. Indulgences Certificates which granted pardons for sins. Position of the Roman Catholic Church: Although Christ died to save men from hell, they still had to do penance or suffer purgatory for their individual sins The popes maintained that they had the power to suspend these punishments A priest selling indulgences to townspeople Wittenburg Door 95 Theses John Tetzel Dominican friar commissioned by the pope to sell indulgences

4 Ninety-five Theses Ninety- five arguments for church reform Why doesn't the Pope build the basilica of St Peter s out of his own money?". Martin Luther German nobles saw an opportunity to cut off currency flowing to Rome so they backed Luther's cause. In 1520, Leo issued the papal bull Exsurge Domine demanding Luther retract 41 of his 95 theses Luther refuses and is excommunicated Ninety-five Theses Luther did not want the theses circulated. To prevent this from happening, Luther wrote the 95 theses in Latin. Latin was the language of the scholars and so he believed they would be the only ones to understand. However, An unknown individual or individuals translated these theses into German and had them circulated throughout Germany. Leipzig Debate Opponents of Luther sought to engage him in debates to show him the error of his ways. Climax of this confrontation occurred in Leipzig in summer of 1519 (three-week debate) Johann Eck champion of Catholicism Debate centered on authority of in the church The debates widened the breach between Luther and Rome. He soon became more convinced that the Bible alone is the sole authority for the Christian faith. Charles V Newly crowned German Emperor Supported Luther refused to condemn him without a hearing Summoned him to appear before the Diet of Worms Luther ultimately refuses to deny his writings or recant his teachings Luther left the city and is declared a heretic Luther s writings banned and he was declared an outlaw of the empire. Luther lives for twenty-five years under the imperial edict and dies a natural death in Katharina von Bora(Katie Luther) 4

5 Luther s Work Doctrines of Reformation spread rapidly Luther s translation of the Bible helped to create a standard German language for all Germany. Philip Melanchthon Close friend of Luther Drew up the Augsburg Confession which sets forth the chief doctrines for which Luther and his followers contended Doctrinal standard for the Lutheran Church Remained the Lutheran church s most highly respected statement of faith. 5

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