In this ancient carving, Hammurabi receives his code of laws from the sun god.

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1 Section 2 Prepare to Read Southwest Asia Cultures and History Objectives In this section, you will 1. Find out that one of the world s earliest civilizations grew in Southwest Asia. 2. Understand that three of the world s great religions began in Southwest Asia. 3. Examine the different ethnic groups and religions of Southwest Asia. 4. Learn about the conflict between Arabs and Israelis in Southwest Asia. Taking Notes As you read this section, look for details about the three main religions that developed in Southwest Asia. Copy the chart below, and record your findings in it. Three Main Religions Developed in Southwest Asia Judaism Christianity Islam Target Reading Skill Analyze Word Parts Point out the Target Reading Skill. Tell students that being able to break up a word and study its parts for example, its root and suffix will help them to figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word or better understand a word they already know. Model analyzing word parts using the word percentage in the last paragraph on p The prefix per- means for every or Target Reading Skill Analyze Word Parts Breaking an unfamiliar word into parts can help you understand the word. Word parts include roots and suffixes. A root is the base of a word that has meaning by itself. A suffix comes at the end of a root word. Suffixes change the meanings of root words. In this section you will read the word creation. The suffix -ion makes the word a noun. If you know what create means, you can figure out the meaning of creation. Hammurabi s Code was written about 3,800 years ago in Southwest Asia. People have described its laws as demanding an eye for an eye. But there was more to the code than that. If the robber is not caught, the man who has been robbed shall formally declare whatever he has lost... and the city and the mayor... shall replace whatever he has lost for him.... If a person is too lazy to make the dike of his field strong and there is a break in the dike and water destroys his own farmland, that person will make good the grain [tax] that is destroyed. from Hammurabi s Code The law punished people severely for wrongdoings. But it also offered justice to people who had been hurt through no fault of their own. Key Terms monotheism (MAHN oh thee iz um) n. a belief that there is only one god muezzin (myoo EZ in) n. a person whose job is to call Muslims to pray Holocaust (HAHL uh kawst) n. the systematic killing of more than six million European Jews and others by Nazi Germany before and during World War II In this ancient carving, Hammurabi receives his code of laws from the sun god. Chapter 5 Section apiece, and the root word cent comes from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred. The suffix -age means result of. So a percentage is the result of taking a part of one hundred, or a part of a whole. Give students Use Roots and Suffixes. Have them complete the activity in groups. Resources, Use Roots and Suffixes, p Step-by-Step Instruction Section Objectives Social Studies 1. Find out that one of the world s earliest civilizations grew in Southwest Asia. 2. Understand that three of the world s great religions began in Southwest Asia. 3. Examine the different ethnic groups and religions of Southwest Asia. 4. Learn about the conflict between Arabs and Israelis in Southwest Asia. Reading/Language Arts Learn to use suffixes and roots to help figure out the meanings of unfamiliar words. Prepare to Read Build Background Knowledge Tell students that in this section they will learn about the cultures and history of Southwest Asia. Draw a concept web on the board. In the center oval write Southwest Asia. Explain to students that this area is often referred to as part of the Middle East. Ask students what they know or have heard on the news about the area. Use the Give One, Get One participation strategy (TE, p. T37) to elicit ideas to add to the web. Set a Purpose for Reading Preview the Objectives. Distribute the worksheet and read each statement in the Reading Readiness Guide aloud. Ask students to mark the statements true or false. Resources, Reading Readiness Guide, p. 260 Have students discuss the statements in pairs or groups of four, then mark their worksheets again. Use the Numbered Heads strategy (TE, p. 36) to call on students to share their group s perspectives. Vocabulary Builder Preview Key Terms Pronounce each Key Term, and then ask students to say the word with you. Provide a simple explanation such as, Judaism is a monotheistic religion. Chapter 5 Section 2 103

2 Instruct Mesopotamia word surplus before reading. Read Mesopotamia using the Oral Cloze reading strategy (TE, p.t33). Show students Istanbul, Aleppo, and Jerusalem: Crossroads of Trade. Then have them write a summary explaining how the locations of the cities covered in the video have made them important centers of trade over time. Video Explore the history of trade in Southwest Asia. Mesopotamia Hammurabi ruled the city of Babylon from about 1800 B.C. to 1750 B.C. He united the region along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Located in present-day Iraq, this region was called Mesopotamia, which is derived from Greek words meaning between the rivers. Mesopotamia was one of the world s earliest civilizations. The people of Mesopotamia developed a system of writing. They also produced ideas about law that still affect people today. For example, they believed that all citizens must obey the same set of laws. People had lived in Mesopotamia for thousands of years before Hammurabi united it. By 3500 B.C., the area became a center of farming and trade. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers flooded every year, leaving fertile soil along their banks. People dug irrigation ditches to bring water to fields that lay far from the river. Irrigation helped them to produce crop surpluses, or more than they needed for their own use. In what present-day country did Mesopotamia develop? Ask students Where was Mesopotamia located? (in present-day Iraq, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) What were some of its achievements? (People in Mesopotamia developed writing and laws.) Ask students How did people of this region produce a surplus of crops? (They dug irrigation ditches to bring water to fields far from rivers.) Independent Practice Assign Guided Reading and Review. Resources, Guided Reading and Review, p. 261 Monitoring Progress Circulate to make sure individuals are filling in the worksheet correctly. Provide assistance as needed. 40 N B Mediterranean Sea 30 N Sinai Peninsula EGYPT l a c k S e a Tropic of Cancer Jericho Jerusalem R e d S e a Early Civilizations of Southwest Asia 40 E Syrian Desert Medina 40 E MESOPOTAMIA Tigris River Euphrates River Babylon Ur ARABIAN PENINSULA 50 E 60 E C aspian Sea Persian Gulf 30 N 50 E W N S E KEY 40 N Fertile Crescent Akkad Sumer Babylonian Empire City 0 miles kilometers 500 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Place The rich soil of the Fertile Crescent extended in an arc from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Several early civilizations rose in Mesopotamia. Locate On the map, locate the Tigris River and the Euphrates River. Draw Conclusions Which physical feature south of Mesopotamia would discourage human settlement? Explain why. Use Web Code lcp-6512 for step-by-step map skills practice. s Iraq Locate They both run through Mesopotamia to the Persian Gulf. Draw Conclusions the Syrian Desert, because there is little water there for farming or drinking Students may practice their map skills using the interactive online version of this map. 104 Asia and the Pacific Vocabulary Builder Use the information below to teach stuents this section s high-use words. High-Use Word Definition and Sample Sentence surplus, p. 104 sacred, p. 106 majority, p. 107 refugee, p. 108 n. an extra amount All the party guests took home some of the surplus food. adj. holy; highly valued Most religions include sacred festivals or holidays. n. the larger number or part of something; more than half The majority of the class voted for Elaine for treasurer. n. person forced to flee to another country The organization raises money to help refugees. 104 Asia and the Pacific

3 Birthplace of Three Religions Birthplace of Three Religions Three of the world s greatest religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have their roots in Southwest Asia. About 2000 B.C., according to Hebrew religious writings, a man later known as Abraham founded the religion that would become known as Judaism. He lived in present-day Israel. Almost 2,000 years later, Jesus, the founder of Christianity, began preaching in presentday Israel. In about A.D. 600, Islam s founder and prophet, Muhammad, began teaching in present-day Saudi Arabia. People who practice these three religions share a belief in monotheism. Monotheism is a belief in only one god. The followers of these religions also worship the same God known as Allah in Islam. Islam Of the three religions, Islam has by far the most followers in Southwest Asia today. They are called Muslims. The sights and sounds of Islam are everywhere in Southwest Asia. One sound is the call of the muezzin (myoo EZ in), a person whose job is to call Muslims to pray. Five times a day, Muslims stop what they are doing and pray. In large cities, the call to prayer is broadcast over loudspeakers. Throughout Southwest Asia, as well as other regions in the world, Muslims gather to worship in buildings called mosques. One of the most famous is the Dome of the Rock, shown in the photo on this page. Jerusalem, A Holy City Jerusalem is holy to Jews, Christians, and Muslims because events important to their religions took place there. The golden-domed building is the Dome of the Rock. It stands over the rock from which Muslims believe the prophet Muhammad rose into heaven. Infer Why might Muslims from around the world want to visit Jerusalem? Chapter 5 Section word sacred before reading. With students, read about the development of three major world religions in Birthplace of Three Religions. Ask students to list the three major religions that originated in Southwest Asia and their founders. (Judaism Abraham, Christianity Jesus, Islam Muhammad) Discuss with students the similarities among Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Encourage students to share information that they may know from their own lives or other sources. (Possible answers: All were founded in Southwest Asia; all practice monotheism.) For Advanced Readers Have students research and create a circle graph showing the number of followers of the world religions they have learned about in this chapter. Have them complete Reading a Circle Graph to familiarize themselves with the format. Resources, Reading a Circle Graph, p. 277 For Special Needs Students Show students Section Reading Support Transparency AP 60 before they read the section. Then have them identify and check off each item in the flow chart as they read. Asia and the Pacific Transparencies, Section Reading Support Transparency AP 60 Infer because events important to Islam took place there Chapter 5 Section 2 105

4 Independent Practice Have students create the Taking Notes graphic organizer on a blank piece of paper. Then have students fill in the chart with information they have just learned. Briefly model labeling the chart and recording details. This woman is praying at the Western Wall, held sacred by Jews as the remains of the Second Temple. Monitor Progress As students fill in the graphic organizer, circulate and make sure that individuals are choosing the correct details. Provide assistance as needed. When students are finished with their flow charts, show Section Reading Support Transparency AP 60 and ask students to check their work. Go over key concepts and clarify key vocabulary as needed. Asia and the Pacific Transparencies, Section Reading Support Transparency AP 60 Diverse Cultures in Southwest Asia word majority before reading. With students, learn about the mixture of peoples in the region in Diverse Cultures in Southwest Asia. Ask students How has the location of Southwest Asia affected its culture? (Southwest Asia was at the center of trading routes that stretched across Europe, Africa, and Asia over 3,000 years ago. Because of these routes and various conquering groups, people of many different ethnic groups and religions settled there. This has resulted in the unique mix of people in Southwest Asia today.) Ask students What is the main ethnic group in Southwest Asia today? (Arab) Where do most non-arab people live? (Israel, Turkey, and Iran) What are the largest ethnic groups in each of these countries? (Israel Jewish, Turkey Turkish, Iran Persian) All three religions were founded in that region. The New Testament of the Christian Bible describes Jesus as a good shepherd who lays down his life for his sheep. 106 Asia and the Pacific Background: Links Across Time The Hanging Gardens of Babylon The famous Hanging Gardens of Babylon were considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Built in what today is Iraq, the gardens are usually attributed to King Nebuchadnezzar II, who ruled Babylon in the sixth century B.C. No certain physical evidence of the garden has survived, but writers of the time described the gardens in detail. Laid out on a series of large terraces Judaism At the heart of Judaism is the Torah (TOH ruh), five books that make up the Jews most sacred text. According to the Torah, about 2000 B.C. Abraham, a Mesopotamian man, became convinced that there was one god, not many. He migrated to Canaan, where he became the ancestor of the Jewish people. Canaan was an area of land located along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Hundreds of years later, it became known as Palestine. From ancient times, Jews saw Palestine as their homeland. The Torah also contains the Ten Commandments. They established religious duties toward God as well as rules for moral and ethical behavior. Christianity Christianity first developed around A.D. 30. The religion is based on the teachings of Jesus, a Jew who traveled throughout Palestine. Christians later adopted the Torah as the first five books of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The first four books of the New Testament of the Christian Bible are the Gospels. They tell about the life and teachings of Jesus. According to the Gospels, Jesus taught that his followers would have eternal life. Like Islam and Judaism, Christianity began in Southwest Asia and spread throughout the world. Why is Southwest Asia considered the birthplace of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam? built one on top of the other, the gardens stood on the roof of Babylon s royal palace. They included tropical flowers and paths lined with palm trees, and were irrigated by pumps from the Euphrates River. The king is said to have built them for his wife Amytis, who missed the mountains and trees found in her homeland. From the shaded rooftop, the king and queen could look out over their city. 106 Asia and the Pacific

5 Diverse Cultures in Southwest Asia More than 3,000 years ago, the land of Southwest Asia was at the center of trading routes that extended across Europe, Africa, and Asia. Time after time, groups from within and outside the region conquered it. The movement of people across Southwest Asia gave the region a unique character. People of many different ethnic groups and religious beliefs settled there. Arabic-speaking Arabs are the largest ethnic group in the region, and Islam is their main religion. But not all Southwest Asians are Arabs. Many Southwest Asians do not speak Arabic and many people, including Arabic-speaking Arabs, practice religions other than Islam. A Mix of Ethnic Groups The people in Southwest Asia belong to a mix of ethnic groups. Today, Arabs are the main ethnic group in Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and other countries on the Arabian Peninsula. Arabs also live in territories occupied by Israel. Non-Arab people live mainly in Israel, Turkey, and Iran. In Israel, about 80 percent of the population is Jewish. The remaining 20 percent is mostly Arab. In Turkey, about 80 percent of the population is Turkish. The rest of Turkey s population is Kurdish. Kurdish people also live in communities in Syria, Iraq, and Iran. In Iran, about 50 percent of the people are Persian. The rest belong to a number of different ethnic groups. A Variety of Religions Except for Israel, the majority of the people in each country in Southwest Asia are Muslim. Even within the Islamic religion, however, there are differences. Muslims are divided into two main groups Sunnis (SOO neez) and Shi as (SHEE uz). Today, about 90 percent of Muslims are Sunni. Most of the Muslims in both Iran and Iraq, however, are Shi as. In Israel, about 80 percent of the people are Jewish. Muslims make up about 20 percent of the population. A small percentage of people in Israel are Christian. Christians also live in Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, and Iraq. About half of Iran s population is Persian. (continued) Ask students What is the main religion practiced in Southwest Asia today? (Islam) What are the two main groups of Muslims? (Sunni and Shi a) What percentage of people in Israel are Jewish? (about 80 percent) What percentage are Muslims? (about 20 percent) Ask students to discuss the possible benefits and challenges of having a mix of ethnic groups and religions in Southwest Asia. (Benefits the people of Southwest Asia are exposed to languages, cultures, and religions other than their own. Challenges groups who speak different languages have trouble communicating with each other; differences among groups can cause serious conflicts.) Independent Practice Divide the class into groups and assign each an ethnic group mentioned in Diverse Cultures in Southwest Asia. Have them do library or Internet research on the ethnic group s history and traditions, then present the information to the rest of the class. Have them use Preparing for Presentations to help them organize their information. Resources, Preparing for Presentations, p. 283 Monitor Progress Circulate while students are preparing for their presentations, making sure individuals are contributing and are using reliable sources for their information. Provide assistance as needed. To which branch of Islam do most Muslims belong? Chapter 5 Section For Special Needs Students Suggest that students use a ruler to help them keep their place as they read, line to line, down a page. Have students mark unfamiliar words or ideas with a sticky note, and periodically help them understand what they have marked. For Advanced Readers Tell students that Moses is a figure who is important to several different religions practiced in Southwest Asia. Assign students Moses and the Ten Commandments. Resources, Moses and the Ten Commandments, p. 280 Sunni Chapter 5 Section 2 107

6 Southwest Asia: Recent History word refugee before reading. Read Southwest Asia: Recent History. Ask students Why do Israelis and Arabs both claim land in Palestine? (Palestine is important in Jewish and Arab history.) Ask students Why do you think many Jews migrated to Palestine after World War II? (Possible answer: After the killing of millions of Jews in Europe during World War II, Jews may have felt that migrating to Palestine would protect them from further persecution.) Ask students What efforts were made toward peace in the 1990s and in 2003? (In 1993, the Israeli and Palestinian governments formally recognized each other; in 2003, Israeli and PLO leaders agreed to a new peace plan.) Have students draw a conclusion about why the United States wanted to set up a democratic government in Iraq after the fall of Saddam. (Possible answer: Americans believed that a democratic government in Iraq would be more peaceful and less likely to build dangerous weapons.) Independent Practice Have each student summarize two current articles on the conflict over Palestine in newspapers or on the Internet. Give students Doing Searches on the Internet to help them with their research. Resources, Doing Searches on the Internet, p. 284 Monitor Progress Tell students to fill in the last column of their Reading Readiness Guides. Resources, Reading Readiness Guide, p. 260 Scenes of Hope A Jewish boy and a Palestinian boy walk together in Israel (left). Israeli troops supervise the evacuation of Jewish residents from the Gaza Strip in 2005 (right). Infer Why might friendship and compromise help solve conflict? Analyze Word Parts If migrate means move from one country or place to another, what is a migration? 108 Asia and the Pacific Southwest Asia: Recent History Differences among various groups of people have led to conflict in Southwest Asia. As you have read, Judaism has ancient roots in Palestine. Over many years, a few Jews continued to live in Palestine. But most had been forced in ancient times to migrate to other parts of the world. In the late 1800s, Jews from around the world began to return to their homeland. This alarmed the Arabs who lived there. For hundreds of years, they had claimed Palestine as their homeland, too. The Formation of Israel Before and during World War II, Nazi Germany killed more than six million Jews in Europe solely because they were Jewish. This became known as the Holocaust. After the war, many of those who had survived decided to migrate to Palestine. On May 14, 1948, Jews declared the formation of their own state, Israel. Their state was recognized by the United Nations. Arab-Israeli Conflict The day after the state of Israel was declared, the Arab nations of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria invaded Israel. These nations supported the Palestinians. Israel drove away the Arab forces. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians fled from Jewish territory. They lived as refugees in other Arab nations or in territories under Israeli rule. Even larger numbers of Jews were forced to leave Arab countries, and most resettled in Israel. Since 1948, Israel and the Arab nations that border it have fought a number of bloody wars. Target Reading Skill Analyze Word Parts As a follow up, ask students to answer the Target Reading Skill question in the Student Edition. (movement from one place to another) Infer People who have friends from other cultures may be more likely to be willing to compromise and try to avoid conflicts. 108 Asia and the Pacific For Advanced Readers Have students complete the Enrichment activity about the Dead Sea. Encourage students to illustrate their stories. When the stories are complete, bind them together into a classroom book of Dead Sea Tales. If possible, display the book at the library for other classes to see. Resources, Enrichment, p. 271 For Less Proficient Readers Have students create an outline of the chapter as they read using the headings as a guide. To help them organize their outlines, show students the Outline Transparency. Asia and the Pacific Transparencies, Transparency B15: Outline

7 Efforts Toward Peace In 1993, Israel and the Palestinian government known as the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) formally recognized each other. In 2000, fighting broke out between Israel and the Palestinians once again. In 2003, Israeli leaders and the PLO agreed on a new peace plan, which called for the co-existence of Israel and a democratic Palestine. In 2005, Israel withdrew its settlements from the Gaza Strip. Due to renewed fighting in the area, however, future progress is uncertain. War With Iraq After Iraq s defeat in the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein (suh DAHM hoo SAYN) refused to cooperate with United Nations inspectors sent to ensure that Iraq destroyed its most dangerous weapons. In March 2003, U.S. forces attacked Iraq in an invasion supported by Great Britain and several other nations. Three weeks after the start of the war, Saddam fell from power. He was captured by U.S. troops in December Although Iraq remains unstable, it successfully held democratic national elections and approved a constitution in Give one example of conflict in Southwest Asia. Section 2 Assessment Key Terms Review the key terms at the beginning of this section. Use each term in a sentence that explains its meaning. Target Reading Skill Define irrigation. The root word means to supply with water by artificial methods. The suffix ion means act or process. Comprehension and Critical Thinking 1. (a) Identify Tell where Mesopotamia is located. (b) Summarize What are two achievements of the civilizations of Mesopotamia? 2. (a) List What three major religions grew in Southwest Asia? (b) Contrast What do all three religions have in common? 3. (a) Name What is Southwest Asia s main ethnic group today? (b) Analyze Information Give one example of ethnic or religious diversity in the region of Southwest Asia. 4. (a) Name What area do both Palestinians and Israelis claim as a homeland? (b) Summarize How has Iraq moved toward establishing a democratic form of government? Iraqis line up to vote for new leaders in the city of Suleimaniya in Writing Activity Write a paragraph that begins with this topic sentence: Southwest Asia is a region with different ethnic groups and religious beliefs. Include supporting details about at least three countries in the region. Writing Tip Include at least two sentences about ethnic groups and at least two sentences about religions. Be sure to include supporting details. Assess and Reteach Assess Progress Have students complete the Section Assessment. Administer the Section Quiz. Resources, Section Quiz, p. 262 Reteach If students need more instruction, have them read this section in the Reading and Vocabulary Study Guide. Chapter 5, Section 2, Asia and the Pacific Reading and Vocabulary Study Guide, pp Extend To extend the lesson, have students do research and write a report on the events leading to the creation of the state of Israel in the period after World War II. Distribute Writing a Cause-and-Effect Essay to help students with their reports. Resources, Writing a Cause-and-Effect Essay, p. 285 s Possible response: Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians were forced to live as refugees in other nations. Even larger numbers of Jews were forced to leave Arab countries. The United States attacked Iraq because of the actions of its leader Saddam Hussein. Writing Activity Use the Rubric for Assessing a Writing Assignment to evaluate students paragraphs. Resources, Rubric for Assessing a Writing Assignment, p. 286 Chapter 5 Section Section 2 Assessment Key Terms Students sentences should reflect an understanding of each Key Term. Target Reading Skill the act of supplying water Comprehension and Critical Thinking 1. (a) in present-day Iraq between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (b) Possible answers: a system of writing, ideas about law, and an irrigation system 2. (a) Judaism, Christianity, Islam (b) They are monotheistic. 3. (a) Arab (b) Possible answers: In Iran, 50 percent of the people are Persian, and the other 50 percent belong to other ethnic groups. Kurdish people live in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran. In Israel, about 80 percent of the population are Jewish, while about 20 percent are Muslims. 4. (a) Palestine (b) After the U.S. capture of Saddam Hussein in December 2003, Iraq has successfully held democratic national elections and also approved a constitution in Chapter 5 Section 2 109

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