War in Afghanistan War in Iraq Arab Spring War in Syria North Korea 1950-

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2 War in Afghanistan War in Iraq Arab Spring War in Syria North Korea 1950-

3 Began as a result of 9/11 attacks September 11, 2001 Four hijacked planes in the U.S. Two crashed into World Trade Center One crashed into Pentagon One crashed in a field in Pennsylvania

4 U.S. (with support from the United Nations) attacked the Taliban, the government of Afghanistan, for allowing Osama bin Laden to operate terrorist training camps there. Al Qaeda was the terrorist organization responsible for the 9/11 attacks Osama Bin Laden

5 Once controlled by Persians and Mongols Capital is Kabul In 19 th century, British and Russia tried to control Independence from Britain in 1919, ruled by kings until 1973 Republic (unstable) until 1978 Reflects the instability caused by IMPERIALISM

6 Soviet tanks, 1979 Mujahideen Dec Soviets invaded to establish/ support communist government never established firm control Rebels called mujahideen, backed by the US, fought against the communists Soviets left in 1988; civil war continued Mujahideen organized into Taliban, controlled country from

7 World Trade Center bombing (1993) Bomb in parking garage of WTC, 6 people killed U.S. Embassy Attacks in Kenya & Tanzania (1998) Bombs went off at embassies within 15 minutes of each other; planned by Osama bin Laden U.S.S. Cole (2000) US Navy ship was attacked by suicide bombers in a boat in Yemen; 17 sailors killed; planned by Al Qaeda under direction of Osama bin Laden

8 The Taliban was overthrown and a new democratic government established. War formally ended in December Some troops remain (noncombat) US troops have died in this conflict as of August 14, 2018.

9 After the overthrow of the Taliban, the U.S. remained to help support the elected Afghan government until it was strong enough to provide security alone The U.S. remained to fight insurgents (rebels or terrorists) who were trying to overthrow the elected government; insurgents include members of the Taliban

10 Began in 2003 as a result of the threat of weapons of mass destruction Saddam Hussein was the president of Iraq

11 War between Iran and Iraq. The U.S. supported Iraq. Saddam Hussein used chemical weapons against the Kurds, an ethnic minority in northern Iraq Persian Gulf War, 1991 The U.S. and allied coalition forces went to war against Iraq after Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. The war lasted 6 weeks.

12 As part of the peace agreement in 1991, Saddam Hussein had to allow the United Nations to conduct inspections for Weapons of Mass Destruction. Saddam Hussein tried to avoid these inspections regularly for 12 years Nuclear weapons Iraq was not accused of having these Biological weapons (ex. anthrax or other deadly diseases that could be used against millions of people) Chemical weapons (ex. mustard gas or cyanide-- chemicals that cause severe burns, suffocation, death)

13 The U.S. attacked Iraq in 2003 because of the belief that Saddam Hussein was hiding weapons of mass destruction. No such weapons have ever been found. Baghdad is the capital of Iraq.

14 Saddam Hussein fled from Baghdad. He was later found and arrested, put on trial for crimes against his own people (killing 148 Shiites), found guilty and hanged. Iraq had its first democratic elections in In summer 2007, civil war erupted between Sunnis and Shi ites, both trying to control Iraq. President Bush sent thousands more troops to try to end the violence in Iraq and establish peace and security. Most people agree the troop surge was successful in ending the civil war.

15 US combat operations officially ended in August 2010 A full withdrawal took place in December About 200 U.S. military personnel stayed in Baghdad as members of the U.S. diplomatic mission. Renewed threat: in 2015, Kurds provided military aid to minorities being targeted by ISIS (Islamic State). The US supported this effort with airstrikes against ISIS the first US military combat action in Iraq since ,542 U.S. troops have died in Iraq, March August, 2018.

16 Definition: Violent, illegal acts designed to intimidate civilians, influence government policy by intimidation, or affect the conduct of government by mass destruction or assassination Munich Olympics (1972) Palestinian terrorists entered Israeli athletes barracks; killed two, and took 9 hostages. All nine were eventually killed. US Embassy, Iran (1979) Islamic revolutionaries, led by Ayatollah Khomeini, attacked US embassy. They kept 52 American hostages for 444 days.

17 Munich Olympics (1972) Palestinian terrorists entered Israeli athletes barracks; killed two, and took 9 hostages. All nine were eventually killed. US Embassy, Iran (1979) Islamic revolutionaries, led by Ayatollah Khomeini, attacked US embassy. They kept 52 American hostages for 444 days.

18 Palestine Liberation Organization Hamas Hezbollah Al Qaeda ISIS Boko Haram

19 Prison on US Naval Base in Cuba for terrorists from Afghanistan and Iraq Status of prisoners debated: criminals, prisoners of war,??? Prisoners initially held without trial or lawyers; US officials accused of cruel interrogation techniques Of the 780 people who have been detained at the United States military prison at Guantánamo, 716 have been transferred to other countries and 55 remain. Nine detainees died in custody.

20 Starting in Tunisia in Dec. 2010, and then Egypt, uprisings led to the overthrow of dictators in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Yemen in Major protests also took place in Bahrain, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, and Sudan Characterized by civil protests and the use of social media; governments have frequently reacted with violence, leading to violence by protesters as well

21 Rebels oppose oppression by Syrian president Bashir al-assad He is accused of war crimes, including using chemical weapons against rebels and civilians Roles played by ISIS, Russia, Iran, Hezbollah, Turkey, and the US Conflict is spilling into Iraq Refugees (5.1 million) have fled to Turkey, Lebanon, and Europe. Inside Syria, 6.3 million are displaced

22 People who flee their countries due to war, natural disaster, political oppression Neighboring countries often can t handle large numbers of refugees and therefore house them in refugee camps Examples: Palestinians, Afghanistan, Central American children (?), Syria

23 Iraq: Sunnis vs. Shiites Israel: Jewish vs. Muslim (Palestinians) India/Pakistan: Hindu vs. Muslim US: Muslim vs. Christian?

24 Division between wealthy and poor nations Characterized by gaps in health care, life expectancy, education, industry, technology, food production, environmental health, population stability, human rights

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