1 Chapter 6: Early India Section 1: India s First Civilizations India looks like a diamond hanging from the bottom of Asia. India is a subcontinent landmass that s part of a continent but distinct from it. Even though India is part of Asia, huge mountains make a barrier between India and the rest of Asia.
2 These mountains are the Himalaya, the highest mountains in the world.
3 Today there are 5 nations that occupy the Indian subcontinent: India, Pakistan (in the northwest), Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh (in the northeast). and Sri Lanka
4 India has two very fertile river valleys. Both are fed by the mountains in the north. When the snow in the Himalaya melts, water flows into the Ganges River and the Indus River. If the water is controlled, the land near these rivers can be used for farming. The Ganges River runs south of the Himilayas and flows into the Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean). The Indus River empties into the Arabian Sea.
5 South of the river valleys is the dry and hilly Deccan Plateau. The eastern & western coasts of India are lush, fertile plains.
6 Monsoons are an important part of Indian climate. A monsoon is a strong wind that blows one direction in winter and the opposite direction in summer. The winter monsoons bring the cold, dry air off the mountains. The summer monsoon brings warm, wet air from the Arabian Sea, which produces drenching rains. When the monsoon rains begin, many farmers celebrate. If the rains come on time and the rainy season lasts long enough, the crop will be good. If the rains are delayed, a drought will occur. This extended period without rain is disastrous for farmers. Few crops will be harvested and many people will starve.
7 India s First Civilization In earlier chapters, you learned about civilizations that began in river valleys. Indian civilization also began in a river valley. India s first civilization grew up near the Indus River. Farmers used the rich soil from the floods (due to the monsoons) to grow crops to feed their families. Eventually, they grew enough crops to begin trading their surplus. India s first civilization in the Indus River valley began about 3000B.C. and lasted until 1500B.C.. More than a thousand villages and towns were part of these civilizations, which stretched from the Himalaya to the Arabian Sea. We know something about the way these people lived from studying the ruins of two major cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. The first Indian civilization was called the Harappan or Indus civilization.
8 Because they left no written records, we don t know a lot about their society or government. We can tell there was a royal palace and a temple revealing that religion and politics were closely connected. Harappa & Mohenjodaro were large cities for their time. Walls surrounded each neighborhood in these well-planned cities. Most had flat roofs and were built with mud bricks. Each had a courtyard in the middle and smaller rooms around it. These ancient cities had surprising conveniences - well water, indoor bathrooms, sewage pipes taking waste outside the walls of the city, and garbage chutes.
9 Harappans were mostly farmers. City dwellers were artisians. Many toys have been found among the remains of the ruins. One item rarely found in the ruins of Harappan cities was weapons. This suggests that the Harappans were not only prosperous but also peaceful. In the years that followed, a group of nomadic people called the Aryans began settling in the region. They conquered the Harrapans and most of India. The Aryan civilization emerged after the collapse of the Harappan civilization. The Harappan civilization collapsed about 1500 B.C. Historians think that several earthquakes and floods damaged the cities. Then the Indus River changed its course, killing many people and forcing others to flee the area.
10 The Aryans lived in central Asia raising and herding animals. They were not a race or ethnic group. They were part of a larger group of people historians refer to as Indo-Europeans. The Indo-Europeans spoke similar languages and migrated south to India and Iran or west to Europe. They were not a race or ethnic group.
11 Aryans were good warriors. They were expert horse riders and hunters. They had metal-tipped spears and wooden chariots, which they sometimes used to invade nearby villages for food. Cattle were prized possessions because they provided meat, milk, and butter. In fact, they were so important that the Aryans even used them as money. Individual wealth was measured by the number of cattle a person owned.
12 After 2000B.C., the Aryans began leaving their home territory moving in waves. Some crossed through the mountain passes in the Himalaya entering the Indus River valley around 1500B.C. Around 1000B.C. the Aryans began expanding across the Punjab and Ganges Plains and south into the Deccan Plateau. Their civilization spread to all of India except the southern tip.
13 When the Aryans arrived in India, they no longer lived as nomads. They became farmers but continued to raise cattle. Eventually, the Aryans would declare that cattle were sacred and forbid them to be used as food. Because Aryans were skilled ironworkers, they improved farming in India. They invented an iron plow to help clear India s many jungles and built canals to irrigate. They slowly turned the Ganges River valley into good farmland. India s varied climate supported many types of crops. In the north, farmers grew grains. Rice was grown in the river valleys. In the south, there was a mix of crops, including spices like pepper, ginger, and cinnamon.
14 The Aryans also brought a new language to India. As nomads, they had no written language, but in India they developed a written language called Sanskrit. (Look on page 199.) The Aryans were organized into tribes. Each Aryan tribe was led by a raja, or prince. The rajas ran their own small kingdoms, which often fought among themselves. Rajas fought over cattle and treasure and over women kidnapped from other states. These small rival kingdoms existed in India for about a thousand years. One of the results of the Aryan arrival in India was the development of a caste system. A caste is a social group that someone is born into and cannot change.
15 A caste dictates what job you will have, whom you can marry, and with whom you can socialize. In India, the word for caste is jati. Thousands of jati exist in India. No one is sure why a caste system was created. Ideas about skin color were probably part of it. They Aryans were a lightskinned people. They thought they were better than the darkskinned people they had encountered in India. This idea was wrong, but the Aryans believed it. Another reason the Aryans might have created the caste system was because the people they encountered in India outnumbered them. The caste system set the rules for everyone s behavior. This helped the Aryans stay in control.
16 The thousands of different jati in Indian society were grouped together into four classes called varmas. At the top (varma) were the Brahmans- priests the only people who could perform religious ceremonies. The one group that did not belong to any varma were called Pariahs (or Dalit), the Untouchables. They performed work other Indians thought was too dirty, like collecting trash, skinning animals, or handling dead bodies. The Kshatriyas were warriors who ran the government and army. The Vaisyas were commoners / farmers, merchants The Sudras were manual laborers and servants with few rights most Indians belong to the Sudra caste.
18 The Varna / Pariahs / Untouchables / Dalit was very hard. They were forced to live apart from others. When Untouchables traveled, they had to tap two sticks together so that everyone would hear them coming and have time to move away. ROLES OF MEN & WOMEN In ancient India, the family was the center of life. Grandparents, parents, and children all lived together in an extended family. The oldest man in the family was in charge. Men had many more rights than women. Unless there were no sons in a family, only a man could inherit property. Only men could go to school or become priests. In families at the top of Indian society a boy had a guru teacher until he went to the city for more education. Young men from these families could marry only when they had finished 12 years of schooling. In India, parents arranged marriages for their children. Even today, parents arrange the majority of marriages in India.
19 Boys and girls were often married in their teens. Some were as young as 13. Divorce was almost never allowed, but if a couple could not have children, the husband could marry a second wife. One custom shows how the lives of Indian men were considered more important than the lives of Indian women. In India, people were cremated, or burned, when they died. When a man from a prominent family died, his wife was expected to leap into the flames. This practice called was called suttee. If the wife resisted and did not kill herself, it was a great shame. Everyone would avoid the woman from then on.
20 Section 2: Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism is one of the oldest religions in the world, and today it is the third largest. It began with the religion of the Aryans, who arrived in India about 1500B.C. The Aryans believed in many gods and goddesses who controlled the forces of nature. We know about Aryan religion from their ancient hymns and poetry. For centuries, the priests, or Brahmins, recited these works and much later they were written down in Sanskrit. Over the centuries, Aryan religion changed. It borrowed some religious ideas from the people the Aryans conquered in India. This mix of beliefs eventually became Hinduism.
21 Early Hinduism Hinduism grew out of the religious customs of many people over thousands of years. This might explain why Hinduism has thousands of gods & goddesses. Hindus tend to think of all gods and goddesses as different parts of one universal spirit. This universal spirit is called Brahman. The search for a universal spirit is described in the ancient religious writings known as the Upanishads. Those writings say that every living being has a soul that wants to be reunited with Brahman and that this happens when a person dies. The Upanishads describe how a person unites with Brahman: A soul that becomes one with Brahman is like a lump of salt thrown into water. The lump of salt is gone, but the water tastes salty. The salt has become part of the water.
22 Hindus believe that a soul is not joined to the Brahman immediately after a person dies. Instead, a person must pass through many lives to be united with Brahman. On its journey, a soul might be reborn into a higher varna or jati. If a person lived a bad life, he or she might be reborn into a lower varna or jati. The idea of passing through many lives to reach the Brahman is called reincarnation. It is very important in Hinduism and it influences how Hindus live their daily lives. It even affects how they treat animals because they consider all life sacred. To earn the reward of a better life in their next life, Hindus believe they must perform their duty. Dharma is the divine law. It requires people to perform the duties of their jati. A farmer has different duties than a priest and men have different duties than women.
23 The consequences of how a person lives are known as karma. If Hindus do their duty and live a good live, they will have good karma. This will move them closer to the Brahman in their next life. Brahma Creator of the world How did the belief in reincarnation affect Indians? For one thing, it made them more accepting of the varna and jati system. People believed they had to be happy with their role in life. A dedicated Hindu believes that the people in a higher varna are superior and that they are supposed to be on top. The belief in reincarnation gave hope to everyone, even servants. If servants did their duty, they might be reborn into a higher social class in their next life.
24 Vishnu preserver of the world Goddess Siva destroyer of the world
25 Goddess Ganesha lord of existing beings; remover of obstacles God Krishna teacher of the world Goddess Lakshmi goddess of light, beauty, good fortune, and wealth
26 God Surya god of the sun God Indra king of the gods; ruler of the heavens and sky
27 Saraswati goddess of knowledge Parvati universal mother
28 Buddhism By 600 BC many Indians began to question Hindu ideas. The Brahman He saw beggars, priests people seemed who to care were only ill, and about people their broken temple ceremonies down by age and with not about home the and needs nowhere of the to people. go. For the Ordinary first Hindus time, he wanted was truly a simpler, aware of more suffering. spiritual religion. Many would find what they needed in Buddhism a new religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama. Prince Siddhartha Gautama was born around 563BC in a small kingdom near the Himalaya (in what is today southern Nepal). He seemed to have it all. He was wealthy, handsome, happily married, and had a fine new son. Then one day he decided to explore the kingdom beyond the palace walls. As he travelled he became very upset.
29 Then He spent and there, rest Siddhartha of his life wandering decided to the seek an answer to this ocuntryside great riddle: and telling Why did people what suffer he had and how could their suffering discovered. be cured? His lessons about life and the nature of He suffering left his became family and known riches as Buddhism. To his followers, and began he his became search. known At first as the Buddha, or Enlightened he lived like One. a hermit, fasting and sleeping on the hard ground. Siddhartha nearly starved, but he still had no answer to his question. Then he decided to meditate for as long as it took to get the answer. Legend tells us that Siddhartha sat under a Bodhi tree to meditate, and after 49 days he finally understood. It was as if he had seen a great light.
30 Like any good Hindu, Siddhartha did not think that the normal, everyday world was real. Trees, houses, animals, the sky, and the oceans were just illusions. So were poverty and sickness, pain and sorrow. He believed that the only way to find the truth about the world was to give up all desires. By giving up the desire for fame, the desire for money, and the desire for all worldly things, pain and sorrow would vanish. If a person gave up all desires, he or she would reach Nirvana a state of wisdom. Nirvana comes from the Sanskrit word for flowing out a candle flame. The heart of Buddha s teachings is contained in the Four Noble Truths.
31 Four Noble Truths 1. Life is full of suffering. 2. People suffer because they desire worldly things and selfsatisfaction. 3. The way to end suffering its to stop desiring things. 4. The only way to stop desiring things is to follow the Eightfold Path. Buddha s Eightfold Path 1. Know and understand the Four Noble Truths. 2. Give up all worldly things and don t harm others. 3. Tell the truth, don t gossip, and don t speak badly of others. 4. Don t commit evil acts, like killing, stealing, or living an unclean life. 5. Do rewarding work. 6. Work for good and oppose evil. 7. Make sure your mind keeps your senses under control. 8. Practice meditation as a way of understanding reality.
32 As more and more people practiced Buddhism, disagreements arose about the Buddha s ideas. Finally, Buddhists split into 2 groups Theravada Buddhism ( teachings of the elders. ) saw Buddha as a great teacher, not a god One reason Buddha s ideas were popular was that he did not accept the varna and jati systems. He felt a person s place is life depended on the person. He did believe in reincarnation, but with a difference he said that you could stop being reborn into new lives. You just had to follow his Eightfold Path. The Untouchables and Lower class Indians like Buddha s message. For the first time, these groups heard that they, too, could reach enlightenment. For more than 40 years, the Buddha preached his ideas. Disciples fathered around him, and after his death, they spread his message all over Asia.
33 Buddhist teachers and merchants spread the ideas of Theravada to the south and east. It was adopted in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Theravada Buddhism also became popular in Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos.
34 The second kind of Buddhism is called Mahayana Buddhism. It teaches that the Buddha is a god who came to save people. Mahayana Buddhists believe that following the Eightfold Path is too hard for most people in this world. They believe that by worshiping the Buddha instead, people will go to a heaven after they die. There, they can follow the Eightfold Path and reach Nirvana. Mahayana Buddhists also have special affections for the bodhisattvas enlightened people who postpone going to heaven. Bodhisattvas have decided to stay on Earth to help other and do good deeds.
35 Mahayana Buddhism spread northward into China and from there to Korea and Japan.
36 A special kind of Mahayana Buddhism develop din central Asia in the country of Tibet. There it mixed with Tibet s traditional religion and with Hinduism. In Tibet, the Buddhist leaders, called lamas, also led the government. When religious leaders head a government, it is called a theocracy. The Dalai Lama was the lama who headed the government, and the Panchen Lama was the lama who led the religion. Both were considered reincarnations of the Buddha. Today, many Buddhists live in countries like Thailand, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka, but few live in India where the Buddha first preached.
37 Section 3: India s First Empires India s princes fought over their small kingdoms for centuries. Then two big invasions taught the Indians a lesson. First, the Persians invaded the Indus Valley in the 500s BC and made it part of the great Persian Empire. Then Alexander the Great invaded India in 327 BC. Although Alexander s troops conquered northern India, he did not stay long. His soldiers were homesick and tired and threatened to rebel unless he turned back. The invasion did have one important effect it led to the first great Indian empire. The Mauryan Dynasty (a series of rulers from the same family) built India s first great empire. India s first empire was founded by Raja Chandragupta Mauray. (chuhn druh GUP-tuh MAH-oor-yuh)
38 Chandragupta was an Indian prince who conquered a large area in the Ganges River valley soon after Alexander invaded western India. Alexander s invasion weakened many of India s kingdoms. After he left, Chandragupta seized the opportunity to conquer and unite almost all of northern India. Chandragupta was the founder of the Mauryan dynasty in about 321BC.. To run his empire, he set up a centralized government (in which rulers run everything from a capital city). Chandragupta s capital city was Pataliputra. He had a strong army, a good spy system, and he set up a postal system for communications. Many historians think the Mauryan dynasty s greatest king was Asoka - who ruled from BC. He was an unusual ruler. After one bloody fight, he walked over the battlefield and was horrified at the dead and wounded. He made a vow to dedicate his life to peace and follow the teaching of the Buddha. Asoka was history s first great Buddhist king.
39 He built hospitals for people and animals. He built new roads with shelters and shade trees along them so travelers could rest. He sent Buddhist teachers throughout India and the rest of Asia to carry the religion to new believers. In India, laborers carved the Buddha s teaching on stone pillars for people to read. These same laborers built thousands of stupas Buddhist shrines that have a dome or mound shape. Although Asoka was Buddhist, he allowed his Hindu subjects to practice their religion. His tolerance was unusual for the time. With a good road system and a strong ruler, the empire prospered. India became the center of a huge trade network that stretched to the Med. Sea. Asoka died in 232BC and the kings who followed him were not very good leaders, weakening the empire. These kings made bad decisions that turned the people against them taxing heavily and seizing peasant crops for themselves. Finally, in 183BC, the last Mauryan ruler was killed by one of his own generals.
40 The Gupta Empire For 500 years, India had no strong ruler. So, once again, the smaller kingdoms fought with one another making life miserable for their subjects. Then, in AD320, one prince in the Ganges River valley grew more powerful than the others. Like an earlier ruler, his name was Chandragupta. This Chandragupta chose to rule from the old capital of the Mauryan empire Pataliputra. Chandragupta founded the Gupta dynasty. When he died, his son, Samadragupta took over the throne and expanded the Gupta empire in northern India. Soon, the new kingdom dominated almost all of northern India. The Guptas ruled for about 200 years. The empire was smaller making it easier for the Gupta rulers to manage. The Gupta empire grew wealthy form trade salt, cloth, and iron. They traded with China and with many kingdoms in southeast Asia and the Mediterranean. The Gupta kings owned silver and god mines and large estates.
41 Trade created jobs for people in India and made many people and cities prosperous. Cities grew up along the trade routes, and many people traveled. Some people, called pilgrims, often used the trade routes to travel to a religious shrine or site. Indian cities that were famous for their temples became wealthy from visiting pilgrims (tourism). Asoka had converted to Buddhism, but the Guptas were Hindus like many of their subjects. They made Hinduism the official religion and gave money to support Hindu scholars and Hindu shrines. The shrines they built to Hindu gods and goddesses inspired Hindus. They often had brightly painted sculptures of images from the Upanishads and other sacred writings. During the Gupta empire, art and science also began to develop. India, like Greece, had a golden age of art and learning during the Gupta empire.
42 The Vedas of India are ancient hymns and prayers for religious ceremonies. No one is certain how old they are because for a long time they were only recited, not written down. Once Aryan people came to India and developed Sanskrit, then the Vedas could be recorded. Later, other types of literature were written down. Two epics are very famous in India. The Mahabharata and the Ramayana are long poems telling about brave warriors and their heroic deeds. Mahabharata It is the longest poem in any written language about 88,000 verses. It is believed that different authors wrote it around 100BC. It describes a great war for control of an Indian kingdom about 1,000 years earlier. The best known section is the Bhagavad Gita or Song of the Lord. It is very important to the Hindus. In it, the god Krishna preaches a sermon before a battle. He tells his listeners how noble it is to do one s duty even when it is difficult and painful.
43 Ramayana This poem is also long. It tells of the great king Rama and his queen Sita. Rama s enemies have him banished from the kingdom. He is forced to live as a hermit in the forest. Later, he fights and defeats the demon Ravan, who had kidnapped Sita. As in many Indian epics, they live happily ever after. One of India s best known authors was Kalidasa. He lived during the Gupta dynasty. He wrote plays, poems, love stories, and comedies. His poem The Cloud Messenger is one of the most popular Sanskrit poems. The Panchantantra is similar to Aesop s fables. In these tales, animal characters talk to present lessons about life. Most Indian literature stresses the importance of dharma. Each person, regardless of social status, must do his or her duty.
44 Indian Math & Science Indian mathematicians, especially in the Gupta period, made important contributions. Aryabhata (AHR yuh BUHT uh) was the leading mathematician of the Gupta empire. He was one of the first scientists known to have used algebra. Indian mathematicians developed the idea of zero and a symbol to represent it. They also explained the concept of infinitysomething without an end. Gupta mathematicians created the symbols for the numbers 1 to 9 that we use today. These number symbols, or numerals were adopted by Arab traders in the AD 700s. European traders borrowed them from the Arabs. Use of these numbers spread thru Europe replacing Roman numerals. Today, this system of number symbols is known as the Hindu-Arabic numerical system.
45 Early Indians also invented mathematical algorithms. An Algorithm is a series of steps that solve a problem. If you follow these steps, you get the right answer. Computer programmers today often use algorithms to tell computers what to do. The basic math algorithms are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Ancient Indians made important contributions in other scientific fields, especially astronomy. They followed and mapped movements of planets and stars. They understood that the Earth was round and revolved around the sun. They also seem to have understood gravity. They even came up with the ideas of atoms before the Greeks in the West did!
46 In the field of medicine, Gupta doctors were advanced for their time. They could set broken bones and perform operations. They also invented many medical tools. An Indian doctor named Shushruta (shoosh ROO tah) carried out an early form of plastic surgery. He worked to restore damaged noses. Indian doctors used herbs in treating illnesses. They also believed it was important to remove the causes of a disease and not just cure the disease itself.
Lesson 1 Early Civilizations ESSENTIAL QUESTION How does geography influence the way people live? GUIDING QUESTIONS 1. How did physical geography and climate influence the development of civilization in
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Classical Civilizations World History Honors Unit 2 Unit 2 India China Ancient Greece Ancient Rome Hinduism One of the oldest religions on earth today Probably created by combining traditions from Vedic
NAME HR The answers to be used in these questions are to be taken from the Textbook: WORLD HISTORY ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS from pages 218-244 1. India is a which is a large landmass that is like a continent,
UNIT TWO In this unit we will analyze Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Indian, and Chinese culture. UNIT TWO In this unit we will analyze Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Indian, and Chinese culture.
Section 1 India s First Empires The Mauryas and the Guptas establish empires, but neither unifies India permanently. 1 India s First Empires The Mauryan Empire Is Established Chandragupta Maurya Seizes
Chapter 6 Geography of Early India India is so huge that many geographers call it a subcontinent! subcontinent-a large area of land that is a part of a continent. Subcontinents are usually separated from
1. Introduction In this chapter, you will learn about the origins and beliefs of Hinduism. Hinduism is the most influential set of religious beliefs in modern India. The ancient traditions that gave rise
ROUND 1 Which is true about the Ganges River? 1. The river is ignored by Indian religious rituals. 2. People do not drink the water because it is so polluted. 3. Many people use the river for transportation
Ancient India and China Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Ancient India and China Section 1: Early Civilizations of India and Pakistan Main Idea #1: The Indian subcontinent is broken down into 3 parts: Deccan Plateau,
Hinduism Practiced by the various cultures of the Indian subcontinent since 1500 BCE. Began in India with the Aryan invaders. Believe in one supreme force called Brahma, the creator, who is in all things.
CLASSICAL INDIA FROM THE MAURYANS TO THE GUPTAS RISE OF MAURYAN EMPIRE Ganges Republics Prior to Alexander, kshatriyan republics dominated, vied for power Maghda was one of the most dominant Western Intrusions
HWK#3-DUE MONDAY 8-20-12 DIRECTIONS: 1. TAKE CORNELL NOTES ON THE FOLLOWING TOPICS: JUDAISM, HINDUISM, BUDDHISM, CONFUCIANISM, DAOISM, LEGALISM 2. MAKE SURE KEY TERMS ARE PUT INTO NOTES-IF YOU DO NOT KNOW
India s First Empires Looking Back, Looking Ahead In the last section, you learned about Hinduism and Buddhism. Both religions developed when India was a land of small kingdoms. These rival kingdoms would
THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS Chapter 1, Section 1 Glencoe World History Modern Times Ancient Mesopotamia Main Idea: In ancient Mesopotamia, city-states elaborated the concept of the law code and divine kingship
REVIEW INDIA ANSWER KEY VOCABULARY Definition Sepoy Indian soldier under British command Jewel of the crown Term referring to India as the most valuable of all British colonies Sepoy Mutiny Uprising of
Religion in Ancient India Hinduism The Aryans Aryans Invaders from Central Asia Raja king / ruler of Aryan village Sanskrit स स क त व क writing system of the Aryans The Vedas Vedas most important Sanskrit
The emergence of South Asian Civilization. September 26, 2013 Review What was the relationship of Han China to Vietnam, and to Korea? Who were the Xiongnu? (What is a barbarian?) What was the Silk Road?
1. Introduction This statue represents Rama, who is a role model as both a man and a ruler, in the way to live by the rules of dharma. In this chapter, you will learn about the origins and beliefs of Hinduism.
Chapter 15 Learning About World Religions: Hinduism Chapter 15 Learning About World Religions: Hinduism What are the origins and beliefs of Hinduism? 15.1 Introduction In this chapter, you will learn about
Sikhism Buddhism * Eight Fold Path Daoism * Yin-Yang * Cosmogony WORLD RELIGIONS Confucianism Shintoism Hinduism RELIGION set of beliefs for a group of people Soul or spirit; a deity or higher being; life
Be able to locate the following on a map of the ancient world: Persian Gulf Mediterranean Sea Black Sea Indus River Tigris River Euphrates River India Huang He River Nile River Fertile Crescent Arabian
SOUTHWESTERN CHRISTIAN SCHOOL WORLD HISTORY STUDY GUIDE # 8 : ANCIENT INDIA 3,000 BC 200 BC LEARNING OBJECTIVES STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT
Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Life of the Buddha The Teachings of Buddhism The Spread of Buddhism Map: Spread of Buddhism Buddhism Main Idea Buddhism Buddhism, which teaches people that they can
Chapter 3 People and Ideas on the Move 3500 B.C. 259 B.C. Time Line 2000 B.C. Hittites migrate to Anatolia. 1100 B.C. Phoenicians begin to dominate Mediterranean trade. 259 B.C. 3500 B.C. 1500 B.C. Aryans
Name Class Date Ancient China Section 1 MAIN IDEAS 1. China s physical geography made farming possible but travel and communication difficult. 2. Civilization began in China along the Huang He and Chang
Ancient History Review How much do you remember from 6th grade? Early Humans Early humans were hunter-gatherers. They relied on animals and plants for food. They moved constantly in search of their food.
1 World History Topic 3 Reading Guide Ancient India and China Lesson 1: Early Civilization in South China Key Terms Using your text, or https://quizlet.com/_5flv2d, write each term in your own words subcontinent
Spirituality in India Hinduism One of the oldest major religions. Polytheism: belief in many gods. Hindus do not eat beef. Fourth largest world religion. (Christianity 1, Islam 2, Buddhism 3) Hindu Facts
Section 1 Natural Environments India- Key physical features & River systems: Landforms- Subcontinent- Large land mass smaller than a continent Gangetic Plain alluvial plain Deccan peninsular plateau, bordered
The Geography of India -India is a peninsula -a peninsula is a landmass with water on three sides -the Indian peninsula juts out into the Indian Ocean -There are two significant geographic areas in India
17.1. Introduction Chapter 17 The First Unification of India How did Ashoka unify the Mauryan Empire and spread Buddhist values? In this chapter, you will learn about an Indian leader named King Ashoka
4 ancient India and China.notebook Ancient India Geographically a subcontinent protected by the Himilayas and Hindu Kush Mtns. watered by the Indus and Ganges (holy) rivers secluded until the Aryan Invasion
Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India 1 The Mauryan and Gupta Empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E. 2 India Before the Mauryan Dynasty 520 B.C.E., Persian emperor Darius conquers northwest
Student Centered Literacy & Writing! 8 Ancient India Reading Stations with Activity Options & Common Core Questions Student Centered & Common Core Includes: 8 Reading Stations, Printable Common Core Questions,
Chapter 7 - Lesson 2 "The Origins of Hinduism" p.226-231 MAIN IDEAS Culture: A group of nomadic people moved into India and took over what was left of Harappan civilization. Government: Under Aryan rule,
124 CHAPTER Prepare to Read Section 1 The Indus and Ganges River Valleys Objectives 1. Learn about India s geographic setting. 2. Find out about life in an ancient city of the Indus River valley. 3. Learn