Chapter 15. The Age of Faith

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1 Chapter 15 The Age of Faith

2 Discussion Early Christian art could also be termed as Late Roman art why? If you were an artist at this time, would you become a Christian? why or why not? Why were symbols so important in Early Christian art and art of the Middle Ages?

3 Christian Artistic Periods 1. Early Christian 2. Byzantine 3. Early Medieval 4. Romanesque 5. Gothic

4 Early Christian Periods Early Christian Art is Divided into two Periods: 1. Era of Persecution 2. Era of Recognition

5 Era of Persecution Christians had to worship in secret so they worshipped in private homes and catacombs. Catacombs - underground burial place. Had chambers called cubicula that served as chapels. The ceiling of the subterranean chapel features a cross inscribed in a circle, symbols of Christian faith and eternity. Lunettes - half moon shapes at the end of the the cross. Orans - figures with outstretched arms in an attitude of prayer that stand in-between the lunettes. From the Latin word meaning to pray. The early Christian iconography was developed based on a mixture of Pagan symbols, Jewish subjects, and events from the life of Jesus.

6 Painted Ceiling. 4 th Century A.D. Catacomb of SS. Pietro e Marcellino, Rome

7 Era of Recognition Constantine adopted Christianity as the faith of the Roman empire. Christians started building places of worship. They were often on top of the old catacombs. They were based on the design of Roman architecture. One of the first and most important churches of the Early Christian Period was Old St. Peter s Cathedral Based on the design of a Roman basilica. Became the blueprint for Christian Cathedrals to come.

8 Old St. Peter s, Rome, Italy

9 Terminology Propylaeum the structure forming the entrance to a temple. Atrium an open-roofed entrance hall or central court in an ancient Roman house. Narthex an antechamber, porch, or distinct area at the western entrance of some early Christian churches, separated off by a railing and used by catechumens, penitents, etc. Nave the central part of a church building, intended to accommodate most of the congregation. In traditional Western churches it is rectangular, separated from the chancel by a step or rail, and from adjacent aisles by pillars. Alter a platform or table used as a center of worship in Christian ceremonies and services Apse a large semicircular or polygonal recess in a church, arched or with a domed roof, typically at the eastern end, and usually containing the altar. Transept (in a cross-shaped church) either of the two parts forming the arms of the cross shape, projecting at right angles from the nave. Latin Cross Plan Longitudinal plan Central plans Mosaics a picture or pattern produced by arranging together small colored pieces of hard material, such as stone, tile, or glass.

10 BYZANTINE ART Term comes from the town of Byzantium where Constantine made his capital, Constantinople. The difference between Early Christian and Byzantine art is a transfer from an earthbound realism to a more spiritual, otherworldly style.

11 Byzantine Art The term Byzantine 1: of, relating to, or characteristic of the ancient city of Byzantium 2: of, relating to, or having the characteristics of a style of architecture developed in the Byzantine Empire especially in the fifth and sixth centuries featuring the dome carried on pendentives over a square and incrustation with marble veneering and with colored mosaics on grounds of gold The transfer from an earthbound religion to a spiritual one in art Byzantine figures appear to be weightless and seem to hover in space Byzantine symbols and its decorative style

12 San Vitale, Ravenna Located on the Adriatic coast of Italy. Built during Justinian s reign. One of the most elaborate buildings decorated in the Byzantine style. Has an organic quality. Ambulatory - the surrounding aisle around the semicircular niches of San Vitale.

13 Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy (Byzantine, CE) ravenna,-526_jpg.jpg

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15 Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy (Byzantine, CE)

16 Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy (Byzantine, CE) ad.jpg

17 Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy (Byzantine, CE) 0/Centre-Jun04-D2108sAR750.jpg

18 Figure 15.5, p.331: Justinian and Attendants (Byzantine, c. 547 CE). Mosaic.

19 Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul) Hagia Sophia = Church of Holy Wisdom. Built by Emperor Justinian. Designed by architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. When the empire split, the Hagia Sophia became an Eastern Orthodox church and a mosque. The minarets were added after the Ottoman conquest following 1453, when it became an Islamic mosque. Pendentives - Four triangular surfaces which support the dome on a square base.

20 ANTHEMIUS OF TRALLES AND ISIDORUS OF MILETUS. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), Turkey ( CE)

21 ANTHEMIUS OF TRALLES AND ISIDORUS OF MILETUS. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), Turkey ( CE)

22 ANTHEMIUS OF TRALLES AND ISIDORUS OF MILETUS. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), Turkey ( CE)

23 St. Mark s, Venice, Italy (begun 1063 CE). Interior view looking toward the apse.

24 Plan of St. Mark s, Venice, Italy. Plan.

25 Muslim pilgrims walking around the Kaaba during the hajj (pilgrimage). Mecca, Saudi Arabia

26 Islam Like Judaism and Christianity, is a monotheistic religion in the Abrahamic tradition. Founded by Muhammad native of Mecca, born around 570 CE, is seen as the final prophet in the Abrahamic tradition. View Abraham, Moses, and Jesus as revelation prophets First rejected, force out by polytheists fled to Medina ( City of the Prophet ) returned and defeated polytheists, converted population to Islam, removed idol of Arabian tribal gods from Kaaba (cube) and rededicated it for Islamic worship. Kaaba considered the spiritual center of the world.

27 Five Duties or Five Pillars of Islam Shahada the basic tenet of submission Salat pray five times a day, facing Mecca Zakah giving of alms to the poor Sawin fasting during the holy month of Ramadan Hajj the pilgrimage to Mecca

28 Aerial view (left) and plan (right) of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia (c CE).

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36 Later Byzantine Art Byzantine art continued to flourish until circa 12th century. In architecture, churches varied between the central and longitudinal plans. One deviation is St. Mark s Cathedral in Venice which is in the Greek-Cross plan Here, the focus is on the dome.

37 Figure 15.5, p. 333 St. Mark s Venice (begun 1063 CE). Interior view looking toward the apse.

38 EARLY MEDIEVAL ART 1. Carolingian Art 2. Ottonian Art

39 Early Medieval Art Between 400 and 1400 CE Also known as the Middle Ages or the Dark Ages Many works of Christian art from the Early Middle Ages have characteristics similar to those that appear in the small carvings and metalwork of these tribes who migrated across Eurasia. Migrations art brought very elaborate swirling motifs to western decoration during the middle ages. Carpet page - named for its resemblance to intricate textiles.

40 Figure 15.17, p.340: Page from the Lindisfarne Gospels (Early Medieval, c. 700 CE). Illuminated manuscript x

41 Carolingian Art Charles the Great (Charlemagne) was the most important name linked to medieval art and culture. Charlemagne tried to unify Europe and revitalize the arts. He sought to bring to Aachen, in the Holy Roman Empire, the most superior minds of his day. The period of his regimen is called the Carolingian Period.

42 The Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne The term palatine means the chapel for the royal palace; it is a chapel usually attached to the palace structure itself. This chapel was influenced by two things: The central plan of San Vitale Roman architecture Structural elements, architectural motifs, and a general blockiness of form point both backward and forward: to Roman architecture of the classical past and to the development or Romanesque architecture during the eleventh century.

43 Figure 15.19, p. 342 Abbey Church of St. Michael at Hildesheim, Germany (Ottonian, c CE). Restored.

44 Manuscript Illumination Charlemagne s best known project was the deciphering of the true biblical text.

45 Manuscript Illumination Charlemagne s best known project was the deciphering of the true biblical text. For manuscript illumination in the scriptoria under the direction of Charlemagne, refer to:

46 Ottonian Art Following Charlemagne s death, there was strife in the Holy Roman Empire The most significant successive rulers of the period were three Germanic emperors all named Otto. Their reign, symbolized the extension of Charlemagne s ideals with attention to the arts and architecture.

47 Architecture The Abbey Church of St. Michael s at Hildesheim was the most important architectural achievement of the Ottonian era. Used a modified Roman basilica plan Became the basis for Romanesque architecture. Used the crossing square as a template Crossing square - the area of overlap formed by the intersection of the nave and the transept. Early example of the square schematism Square schematism - the crossing square determines the dimensions of the entire structure. Also used an alternate support system Alternate support system - alternating structural elements bear the weight of the walls and load of the ceiling.

48 Sculpture The panels from the bronze doors of St. Mary s Cathedral at Hildesheim were the first sculptures cast in one piece during the Middle Ages The panels show a similarity to manuscript illumination of this period This is an emotional sculpture These are not Classical figures

49 Figure 15.20, p.343: Adam and Eve Reproached by the Lord (Ottonian, 1015 CE). Panel of bronze doors. 23 x 43.

50 Romanesque Art During the closing decades of the 11th century It was the end of the barbarian invasions. The beginning of feudalism. In the Middle ages everyone was obsessed with salvation. As a result there were lots of crusades and pilgrimages. Crusades were holy wars waged in the name of recovering the Holy Land from the Muslims. Pilgrimages were long journeys to worship at the sacred shrines and tombs of saints.

51 Architecture In Romanesque architecture: The exterior forms reflected the interior spaces. The interiors consisted of five major areas. They had spacious interiors Used new methods of fireproofing

52 St. Sernin In Toulouse, France Blocky forms that outline a nave and side aisles. Multileveled spire above the crossing Five radiating chapels for worship Square schematism in the plan Used a stone vaulted ceiling instead of a flat wooden one. One problem, a dark interior. Tribune gallery - support for the barrel vault. Reduced the drop-off from the barrel vault to the lower aisles. Provided extra space from worshippers.

53 Figure 15.21, p.344: Church of St. Sernin, Toulouse, France (Romanesque, c CE).

54 St. Étienne Located In Normandy Innovations include: Improvements in ceiling vaulting The addition of a clerestory for more light. The engaged columns and compound piers in the nave walls as support systems. Transverse ribs and diagonal ribs and the resulting rib vault. An alternating a-b-b-a support system.

55 Figure 15.23, p.346: Cathedral of St. Étienne, Caen, France (Romanesque, CE).

56 Sculpture Sculpture is used as architectural decoration, especially on the portals Most important and elaborate was in the Tympanum. Tympanum - a semicircular space above the doors to a cathedral. Subject was often fate in the afterlife. Served as a warning. Images were stiff and stylized, not natural. Realism was not the goal.

57 Manuscript Illumination There is a relationship between Romanesque sculpture and manuscript illumination. Used Hierarchical scaling - size is used to show importance. Naturalism began to be popular again at the end of the Romanesque period.

58 Figure 15.25, p.348: The Annunciation to the Shepherds, from the Lectionary of Henry II ( CE). Approx. 17 x 13

59 Tapestry Weaving and embroidery were taught to women of all stations. Noblewomen and nuns decorated tapestries, clothing, and priests vestments. The most famous tapestry is the Bayeux Tapestry that recounts the invasion of England by William the Conqueror. Tapestry commissioned by the Bishop of Odo; it is 20 x 230

60 Figure 15.26, p. 348 Bayeux Tapestry (Romanesque, c CE). Detail. Wool embroidery on linen. H: 20 x 230.

61 Gothic Art The Gothic period dates from the 12th and 13th century. The term Gothic was a negative term used by historians because it was believed that the barbaric Goths were responsible for the style of this period.

62 Architecture The Gothic period began with the construction of the choir at St. Denis by the Abbot Suger. A pointed arch ceiling was used as part of the skeletal structure. Vaulting allowed for the use of larger stained glass windows. The exterior walls are no longer as thick and massive.

63 Laon Cathedral Early Gothic example with a plan that resembles Romanesque. The interior goes from three to four levels, and a triforum was added to the tribune gallery. The stone portals seem to jut forward from the façade. The stone is pierced by windows, arcades and a large rose window in the center. Filigree-like bell towers.

64 Figure 15.27, p.349: Interior of Laon Cathedral, view facing east (begun c CE).

65 Figure 15.29, p.351: Exterior of Laon Cathedral, west facade (begun c CE).

66 Notre-Dame One of the most famous buildings in the history of architecture is Cathedral of Notre- Dame de Paris. Was a mixture of old and new elements. Combination of old and late styles. Extensive modifications in resembling High Gothic style. Used an elimination of the triforum and the addition of lacy flying buttresses. Fenestration gives it a light and airy look; note the rose window.

67 Figure 15.30, p.351: Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris (Gothic, begun 1163 CE, completed 1250 CE).

68 Chartres Cathedral Generally considered to be the first High Gothic church. The three-part wall structure allowed for large clerestory and stained-glass windows. There were developments in the flying buttresses. In the High Gothic period there is a change from square schematism to the new rectangular bay system.

69 Figure 15.30, p.351: Aerial view from the northwest of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France (begun 1134 CE, rebuilt after 1194 CE).

70 Gothic Architecture Outside France Churches in northern Europe showed some variations in style. Some English and German Gothic structures maintained the Romanesque blockiness. Salisbury Cathedral in England (Fig D) shows differences from the French Gothic plan.

71 Florence Cathedral Italy did not adhere to the strict French Gothic style; why? Florence s cathedral has green and white marble geometric patterns on the exterior. It is more horizontal than the vertical French Gothic style. Note that this cathedral is also different in plan (Fig E).

72 Figure 15.32, p.353: Florence Cathedral (Gothic, begun 1368 CE).

73 Sculpture There was a change in mood from Romanesque sculpture to Gothic. The iconography is of redemption rather than damnation. Scenes were now of the life of Jesus or the apocalypse. The Virgin Mary also started to become important. Terms: Archivolts Jambs Annunciation scene Visitation International Gothic Style

74 Compare Jamb Sculptures The differences in the jamb sculptures around portals at Chartres Cathedral and Reims Cathedral The bodies, folds of drapery, and the facial features Notice the more natural approach Discuss the Annunciation and the Visitation represented

75 Figure 15.33, p.354: Jamb figures, west portals, Chartres Cathedral (Gothic, c CE).

76 Figure 15.34, p.355: Jamb figures, west portals, Reims Cathedral (Gothic, begun 1210 CE).

77 Discussion Questions: How was Jesus depicted by the early church and in the Byzantine era? The Medieval period is referred to as a holding period. Why? What are the differences between Romanesque and Gothic art forms?

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