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1 PART FIVE Chapter 15: Christianity and the Formation of Europe Time Periods for this chapter include: Early Christian: Byzantium Middle Ages: Carolingian, Romanesque, and Gothic

2 Key Terms for this chapter include: basilica: nave, apse, aisles, clerestory, transcept, narthex central and cross church plans icon illumination ambulatory embroidery and tapestry

3 The Rise of Christianity This chapter focuses on the rise in Christianity in western Europe and the arts of Byzantium. Very little early Christian art survives. Some was preserved in underground burial chambers. Early Christians borrowed iconography from Greek and Roman art.

4 The Rise of Christianity Early Christian churches were constructed in the style of a Roman building called a basilica. It consists of an apse, nave, aisles, and clerestory. Apse: Altar Nave: Open central space Aisles: Passageways Clerestory: Upward extension pierced with windows.

5 Plan of Old St. Peter s Basilica

6 The Rise of Christianity A transcept and a narthex were also added to Christian architecture to form the basic vocabulary of a church. Transcept: Lengthwise extensions perpendicular to the nave. Together they form a cross plan for a church. Narthex: An entry porch into a church.

7 *Left Constantine the Great, height of head 8 6, *Right San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy,

8 Byzantium Byzantine rulers viewed themselves as the legitimate continuation of the Roman Empire. Byzantine artwork combines images of earthly power and splendor with ones based in Christian iconography.

9 Byzantium A central church plan design was favored over the cross plan design. It usually consists of square with a central dome. The major axis is vertical, symbolizing earth and heaven. Artwork is more flattened and abstracted. Subjects express religious doctrines and beliefs. Icon: A specific kind of image, either a portrait of a sacred person or a portrayal of a sacred event.

10 *Left - Emperoress Theodora and Retinue, San Vitale, mosaic, 547 *Right - Mosaic depicting Christ as Pantokrator, Cicily, 1183

11 Early Middle Ages The kingdoms of the early Middle Ages in Europe were occupied by descendants of migratory tribes that had traveled southward and westward across the continent during the 4th and 5th centuries. Animal Style: Motifs based in animal forms used as a part of delicately made designs. Interlace: Patterns formed by intricately woven ribbons and bands. Insert visual(s). Suggestions: purse cover, from Sutton Hoo Lion, from the Gospel Book of Durrow

12 Left - purse cover, from Sutton Hoo, 7 th century Right - Lion, from the Gospel Book of Durrow, proably made by Irish monk in Scotland, beginning of book of Mark

13 Early Middle Ages In France, another style of art was emerging, called Carolingian after the emperor Charlemagne or Charles the Great. His military conquests eventually gave him control over most of western Europe. In the year 800 on Christmas Day, the Pope crowned Charlemagne as the first Holy Roman Emperor. Carolingian Art: A combination of Christian and Roman imagery and architecture.

14 Early Middle Ages Among the most important artistic products of the early Middle Ages were copies of Christian scriptures. In the days before the printing press, each book had to be copied by hand. This was completed by monks working in monasteries. Illumination: Monks also illuminated books by furnishing them with illustrations and decorations.

15 High Middle Ages Most of the great cathedrals were built during the Middle Ages. A majority of the art associated with this time period comes from monasteries, churches, and cathedrals. Historians divide this time into 2 periods: Romanesque and Gothic

16 High Middle Ages Romanesque (1050 to 1200) Based on southern styles from the old Roman Empire. Characterized by massiveness, thick stonewalls, round arches, and barrel-vaulted ceilings. Marked by a building boom caused by the popularity of religious pilgrimages. Insert visual(s). Suggestion: Plan of Sainte-Foy

17 *Sainte-Foy, France, Earliest Romanesque church still standing. Cross-form plan. Transformed to accommodate large crowds.

18 Reliquary statue of Sainte Foy, Late 10 th - early 11th century Used to store remains of Sainte Foy.

19 High Middle Ages Romanesque (1050 to 1200) Ambulatory: Latin for walkway; an aisle around the apse. *Embroidery: A technique in which colored yarns are sewn to an existing woven background.

20 Detail of Bayeaux Tapestry, , embroidery on linen

21 High Middle Ages Gothic (ca into the 15th century) Inspired by early Christian writings, a powerful French abbot named Suger started the Gothic architectural style. He believed that an ideal church should have certain characteristics: It should appear to reach up to heaven. It should have harmonious proportions. It should be filled with light.

22 High Middle Ages Gothic (ca into the 15th century) To fulfill those goals, Sugers architects responded with pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, flying buttresses, and stained glass windows. Sculpture in the Middle Ages was often created to embellish architecture. Tapestries were more valued than paintings during the Middle Ages. Insert visual(s). Suggestions: West façade, Chartres Cathedral door jamb statues, west façade

23 West facade, *Chartres Cathedral

24 Door jamb statues, west façade

25 Left Rose Window, Chartres Cathedral, 13 th century Right The Lady and the Unicorn, late 15 th century.

26 Towards the Renaissance Contemporaries, Duccio and Giotto represent a transition from the Middle Ages style of art to the Renaissance. Both artists sought a new direction for painting--a more naturalistic and representational depiction of the physical world.

27 *Left Christ Entering Jerusalem, Duccio, *Right The Lamentation, Giotto, fresco,

28 Christianity and the Formation of Europe: SUMMARY Time Periods and Key Terms covered: Early Christian (Byzantium): Basilica, Nave, Apse, Aisles, Clerestory, Transcept, Narthex, Central and Cross Church plans, Icon Middle Ages (Carolingian, Romanesque, Gothic): Illumination, Ambulatory, Embroidery, Tapestry

29 DARK AGES VIDEO LINKS DARK AGES PART 1 SACKING OF ROME DARK AGES PART 2 WANING EMPIRE DARK AGES PART 3 COMMON THREAD OF CHRISTIANITY DARK AGES PART 4 AN EMPIRE STRIKES BACK DARK AGES PART 5 THE PLAGUE DARK AGES PART 6 MEN OF CLOTH MEN OF LETTERS DARK AGES PART 7 - A HOLY WAR DARK AGES PART 8 THE GREATEST KING DARK AGES PART 9 THE VIKINGS DARK AGES PART 10 THE CRUSADES DARK AGES PART 11 THE CONCLUSION BUBONIC PLAGUE

30 Compare and contrast the cathedrals below. Discuss periods, characteristics, and reasons for specific cathedral design changes between periods.

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