1. What was meant by the white robe of churches? 2. What advantage did stone vaults have over wooden roofs?

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1 AP ART HISTORY Mrs. Dill, La Jolla High School CHAPTER 17: ROMANESQUE EUROPE 1. What was meant by the white robe of churches? 2. List three major pilgrimage sites favored by Medieval European pilgrims. 3. Identify the following (found throughout the chapter) Bernard of Clairvaux Cluniac Order Eleanor of Aquitaine Giselbertus Master Hugo Wilgelmus William of Normandy cult of relics historiated initial FRANCE AND NORTHERN SPAIN 1. What common experience made the use of stone vaults so important to Romanesque builders? 2. What advantage did stone vaults have over wooden roofs? 3. Define or identify the following architectural terms: Barrel vault Bay Buttress Campanile Choir compound pier Crossing radiating chapel transverse arch tribune

2 4. Label the following parts of the plan below: ambulatory, apse, bay, buttress, crossing, nave, transept, radiating chapel, aisles, choir. 5. List four modifications made in Romanesque churches along the pilgrimage route to accommodate the large crowds and the relics they came to see: d. 6. List two features of Romanesque interiors that illustrate the modular design of the plan: How are the interior bays marked on the exterior?

3 7. A possible prototype of the stone carving of Christ in Majesty from Saint Sernin at Toulouse (FIG. 17-7) was: 8. List four stylistic features seen in the tympanum at Moissac: The subject of the tympanum is: 9. The subject of the west tympanum of Saint Lazare at Autun is: What was the purpose of such a scene? 10. In what way did the views of Cistercian monks affect the buildings they built? In formulating your answer compare Fonteney (FIG ) with Cluny III (FIG. 17-8). 11. What part of the church of Saint- Savin- sur Gartempe was covered with paintings? What was the source of its subject matter? 12. List two stylistic features shared by the fresco of Christ in Majesty from Santa María de Mur (FIG ) and the Christ in Majesty from Toulouse (FIG. 17-7). 13. Why is the seated virgin shown in Fig known as the Throne of Wisdom?

4 HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 1. Define the following architectural terms: Campanile Compound pier Groin vault Alternating support system 2. The main drawback of barrel vaulting was: What type of vault offered a solution to this problem? In the nave of the German cathedral of Speyer (FIG ) this type of vault was combined with the system used at St. Cyriakus Gernrode (FIG ). 3. The most important Romanesque church in Lombardy Italy is. It retains the Early Christian feature of an. The building has square bays and is vaulted with vaults, which create a domical effect. 4. Who was Hildegard of Bingen and what is the subject of the page from the Scivias shown in FIG ? 5. List three classicizing features seen in the baptismal font done by Rainer of Huy (FIG ). 6. What is the purpose of the silver head of Saint Alexander shown in FIG ? ITALY 1. List three features that Pisa Cathedral shares with its Early Christian prototypes.

5 2. List four features that distinguish it from them: d. 3. List two Tuscan Romanesque buildings in Florence: 4. What features did the twelfth century Italian sculptor Benedetto Antelami adapt from Greco- Roman prototypes? However, he did not take over the characteristic pose of Grego- Roman prototypes, which is known as: NORMANDY AND ENGLAND 1. Define the following terms: Rib vaults Sexpartite vault Three story elevation Quadrant arch 2. The nave of St. Étienne at Caen (FIGS ) has a light and airy feeling. What structural features made this possible? 3. Two key elements of Gothic architecture were combined for the first time in the vaults of Durham Cathedral. What are they? 4. How has the Romanesque style as seen in the Bury Bible (FIG ) been modified from earlier examples? DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: Pick One What are the distinguishing features of the Romanesque style seen in the church of Saint Sernin at Toulouse (FIGS & 17-5) when compared with Old Saint Peter s in Rome (FIG. 11-7).

6 What evidence do you see that the Christ in Majesty from Saint Sernin (Fig. 17-7) was derived from a metal prototype such as the cover of the Lindau Gospels (FIG )? What features indicate the common stylistic derivation of the fresco from Santa María de Mur (FIG ) and the apse mosaic from Monreale (FIG )? What changes do you see? What portents of change appear in the illumination depicting the scribe Eadwine from the Eadwine Psalter (FIG )? Compare the treatment of the drapery and the body of Eadwine with that in the illustrations from the Bury Bible (FIG ) and the Evangelist from the Ebbo Gospels (FIG ).

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