Early Medieval Art. Carolingian Art 8 th -9 th Centuries, France & Germany Ottonian Art 10 th -Early 11 th Centuries, Germany

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1 Early Medieval Art Carolingian Art 8 th -9 th Centuries, France & Germany Ottonian Art 10 th -Early 11 th Centuries, Germany

2 From the Latin "eques", meaning "knight", deriving from "equus", meaning "horse". Equestrian Statue of Charlemagne Statue in gilded bronze. The statue was erected in 175 CE

3 Carolingian Art Charlemagne Charles the Great Carolus Magnus Equestrian Statue of Charlemagne Inspired by Roman equestrian monuments such as Marcus Aurelius Imperial crown and robes Orb as a symbol of the world Rider larger than the horse he rides on (Hierarchy of scale) Horse is on parade, seems tame and obedient Sits 3 as though he is standing upright

4 Carolingian Art Palatine Chapel, Aachen, (What is now Germany) Architect: Odo of Metz Charlemagne began the construction of the Palatine Chapel around 792, along with the building of the rest of the palace structures. It was consecrated in 805 San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy

5 Carolingian Art Palatine Chapel, Aachen, (What is now Germany) Architect: Odo of Metz San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy Charlemagne began the construction of the Palatine Chapel around 792, along with the building of the rest of the palace structures. [3] It was consecrated in 805 by Pope Leo III in honor of the Virgin Mary. The building is a centrally planned, domed chapel. The east end had a square apse, and was originally flanked by two basilican structures, now lost but known through archaeology. The chapel was entered through a monumental atrium, to the west. The plan and decoration of the building combines elements of Classical, Byzantine and Pre- Romanesque, and opulent materials as the expression of a new royal house, ruled by Charlemagne.

6 Carolingian Art Palatine Chapel, Aachen Central plan, topped by an octagon Built for Charlemagne Inspired by San Vitale Capitals taken from old Roman monuments Large heavy appearance Arches smaller on first story, larger on second Arches on second story have Roman columns placed inside that are purely decorative, and do not hold the arches up Arches on first floor have a low, heavy, thick appearance Arches have a striped pattern 6

7 Carolingian Art Lorsch Gatehouse, Lorsch Not really a gateway, but probably in an atrium in a monastery Cf. a triumphal arch in a Roman forum Gabled roof for snow Three equal openings Columns placed against wall Surface pattern and design Fluted pilasters Chapel on top may have been a reception hall for distinguished guests Imitation pediments 7

8 Carolingian Art Monastery Plan, St. Gall, Switzerland Ideal plan of a selfsufficient monastic community Church in center, other buildings around Daily activities in one place Cloistered monks never leave except to work in the fields Community of about monks with 30 to 40 serfs per monk Highly organized Many altars in church, not for congregation, but for monks to say Mass Everything necessary for the monks grouped around the cloister Timber architecture in outer buildings Standard of comfort was high for the time Serfs lived with animals in their pens Infirmary, school, convent, guest house 8

9 Ottonian Art Saint Michael s, Hildesheim Two pairs of lateral entrances Two pairs of crossing towers Two pairs of stair turrets Two apses Two transepts Supports in the nave are not traditional columns, but pairs of columns alternating with square piers Divides nave into three separate units of three openings each First and third units are related to the lateral entrances to the buildingnave is a hall that connects the two apses Windows do not line up with arches below: 9 arches with 10 windows Spacious undecorated interior 9

10 Ottonian Art Bronze Column of Hildesheim Spiral column akin to Column of Trajan; scenes from bottom to top, but in reverse spiral Story of the life of Christ Culminates in decorative capital The Bernward Column in Hildesheim Cathedral ( ) Year c Type Material Dimensions Location victory column bronze 3.79 m (149 in); 0.58 m diameter (23 in) Hildesheim 10

11 Adam 11and Eve Ottonian Art Bronze Door of Hildesheim Suggestions of Roman monumentality: inspired by bronze doors of the Pantheon (now gone) or Palatine Chapel (no decoration) Solid bronze, each scene molded separately Scenes compare scenes of the fall of man with the saving of man Rectangular scenes with few figures and a barren landscape, empty background Emphasis of gesture, liveliness Bony figures Emphasis on extremities: hands, feet, head Spiky foliage Heads fully rounded and emerge from background Scenes tell the story of the life of Christ and

12 Ottonian Art Bronze Door of Hildesheim Suggestions of Roman monumentality: inspired by bronze doors of the Pantheon (now gone) or Palatine Chapel (no decoration) Solid bronze, each scene molded separately Scenes compare scenes of the fall of man with the saving of man Rectangular scenes with few figures and a barren landscape, empty background Emphasis of gesture, liveliness Bony figures

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