Beowulf was written in Old English between the 8 th and 11 th centuries; the oldest known copy is from 1010.

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1 Beowulf was written in Old English between the 8 th and 11 th centuries; the oldest known copy is from 1010.

2 The Knight s Tale, Canterbury Tales, By Geoffrey Chaucer, Written in Middle English in the 1380s &1390s. This copy is the Ellesmere Manuscript, early 1400s.

3 From the Bestiary of Anne Walshe,

4 Romanesque Art (Roman-like) c

5

6 By the year 1000, Europe was beginning to increase in: economic wealth and political stability population size of towns establishment of universities size and power of monasteries Crusades and pilgrimages also increased the number of people traveling in this period

7 Reliquary of Ste. Foy

8 Pilgrimages Primarily to ask for God s healing & assistance at Santiago de Compostela in western Spain St. Peter s, Rome Jerusalem Along the way, pilgrims stopped at monasteries and other churches for hostelry and prayer Increased trade and travel Good reliquaries increased the chances pilgrims would stop at your monastery/church

9 Reliquary of Ste. Foy, about 33 ; c. 1000; Roman helmet, enamelled eyes, gold repousee, precious stones over wood core; Ste. Foy s skull kept inside (other bones under the altar) Ste. Foy burned to death in 303 for refusing to make sacrifices to pagan (Roman) gods

10 apse Ambulatory Radiating chapel Ste. Foy s Reliquary became so important on the pilgrimage route that a new church had to be built: Ste. Foy, Conques, France, An ambulatory and radiating chapels were added to the apse so pilgrims could walk behind the altar and view important reliquaries.

11

12

13 Head Reliquary of Saint Alexander, 1145

14 Saint Sernin, Toulouse, France c

15 Radiating chapels (apsidal chapels) ambulatory apse Altar& choir crossing transept buttresses nave Note: the crossing square is the module for the church; Each nave bay is ½ the crossing square Each aisle square is ¼ the crossing square narthex West entrance

16 Cruciform (basilica) plan with transepts; Note crossing (lantern) tower at crossing of nave and transepts.

17 Apse, ambulatory, radiating chapels on the east end

18 Saint-Sernin, Toulouse c

19 Stone Barrel Vaults (not flat wooden roofs) with ribbed, (reinforced) transverse arches Ribbed, transverse arch

20 Tribune gallery Nave arcade Much taller than Ottonian churches; not much light (clerestories over 2 nd aisle)

21 Transverse arches sit on engaged columns, go from floor to floor The square module plan is visible because of the transverse arches and the nave arcade Start-stop rhythm; each bay marked off by a compound pier

22 Fontenay abbey church; Romanesque with pointed rib vaults

23 Side aisles Rib vaults Fontenay

24 West facade Saint-Etienne,Caen, France, Norman (originally Norsemen), begun 1064

25

26 The Norman Conquest of England by William the Conquerer, 1066

27 Bayeux Tapestry, , depicts contemporary events! Funeral Procession for King Eadward I (Edward the Confessor); Buried at Westminster Abbey which was finished 1065.

28 Crowning of Harold, Edward s brother-in-law, as king; Normans believed Edward had recognized Duke William, the Norman, as heir

29

30 Bayeaux Tapestry, (embroidered wool on linen), 1 8 high, long,

31 Note the peripheral imagery of fanciful birds and beasts an English specialty

32 Odo

33 William with half-brothers Odo of Bayeux and Robert of Mortain.

34 Bishop Odo blessing the feast

35 Norman church: St. Etienne, Caen

36 Durham Cathedral

37 Durham Cathedral, Norman England begun 1093 Ribbed groin vaults; Advantage: With weight on four piers, not the walls, more windows can be cut into the walls

38

39 Pointed transverse arch Ribbed groin vaults Round transverse arch

40 clerestory triforium Nave arcade Sculptured columns

41

42

43 clerestory Early flying buttress, hidden behind triforium Nave arcade compound, cluster pier

44

45 Norman church: St. Etienne, Caen

46 Saint-Etienne, Caen, interior

47 Clerestory Triforium Ribbed Groin Vaults, 1130 Groin vaults Nave arcade with Side Aisles

48

49

50 Sant Ambrogio, Milan, Italy late 11 th to early 12 th century

51 Sant Ambrogio, Milan

52 Pisa Cathedral, Italy begun 1063; campanile begun 1174

53

54

55 Romanesque Sculpture -Revival of stone sculpture -Revival of large-scale sculpture -Primarily on capitals and portals

56 Cloister (Moissac)

57 Cloister of Saint-Pierre,Moissac, France with its historiated capitals

58

59 Crusaders, Monreale cloister capital

60 Christ in Majesty (Second Coming of Christ), Saint-Sernin, Toulouse (by Bernardus Gelduinus)

61 Christ in Majesty, Lerida, Spain, 12 th c

62 Eagle: John Angel: Matthew Christ in a mandorla Ox: Luke Lion: Mark

63 12 th century, Aberdeen Manuscript

64 Christ in Majesty, South Portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac

65

66 Note: dove-tailed draperies, zigzag lines, pattern-filled scenes hieratic scale

67

68 Archivolts (arches over the tympanum) Tympanum Voussoirs (individual wedge-shaped Stones) Lintel (with rosettes)

69

70 Old Testament Prophet, trumeau sculpture, Saint-Pierre, Moissac

71 St. George Fighting the Dragon, Moralia in Job ms,

72

73 Trumeau Sculpture (elongated to fit the architectural setting) Never used live models, which would be dwelling in the flesh

74 Cross-legged pose

75

76

77 Historiated capitals From St. Lazare, Autun, France

78 Last Judgement, Saint-Lazare, Autun

79

80 St. George Fighting the Dragon, Moralia in Job ms,

81

82

83 From Autun, France

84 Vezelay tympanum, Judgement

85 Ascension of Christ and the Mission of the Apostles, tympanum, La Madeleine, Vezelay, France

86

87

88

89 Virgin and Child, Morgan Madonna second half of 12 th c. 2 7 Auvergne, France

90

91 Christ in Majesty, Lerida, Spain

92 Christ in Majesty, San Clemente, Tahull, Spain

93 Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, painted barrel vault, c 1100

94

95 Building the Tower of Babel, Saint-Savin-Sur-Gartempe

96

97 Spanish, 1050 David and his musicians tuning instruments

98 Vision of Hildegard of Bingen, (German )

99 11thc German

100 Initial R, St. George fighting a dragon

101

102 Oval/band-like folds at waist or abdomen Ovals for thighs Pattern-filled drapery & bodies

103

104 Master Hugo, Moses expounding the law, Bury Bible

105

106 Eadwine the Scribe at work, Eadwine Psalter

107

108

109 Hellmouth. Winchester Psalter.

110

111

112 Early 16 th c Allegory of Death

113 On to Gothic

114

115

116

117

118 Samuel

119

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