3. Compare and contrast the centrally planned Early Christian churches with the longitudinal, Latin Cross plan churches.

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1 [CHP. 8: EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART] P AGE 1 Part : Unit Exam Essay Questions 1. Discuss the differences between Christianity and other Mediterranean religions of the time. What were the social and political consequences of these differences? 2. Explain the evolution of the Roman basilica into the Early Christian basilica. Include functions and architectural elements. 3. Compare and contrast the centrally planned Early Christian churches with the longitudinal, Latin cross plan churches. Include their Greco Roman antecedents and function. 4. Discuss the syncretistic character of Early Christian pictorial style. 5. Describe the development of the dome on a base from the Pantheon to Hagia Sophia. What are the problems and advantages of each system? 6. Describe the development of Byzantine pictorial style from the 6th to the 14th century. Give specific examples from your textbook. (from other) 1. Discuss the differences between Christianity and the other religions in the Mediterranean area. What were the social and political consequences of the differences? 2. Explain the evolution of the Roman basilica into the Early Christian basilica. Include functions and architectural elements. 3. Compare and contrast the centrally planned Early Christian churches with the longitudinal, Latin Cross plan churches. Include their Greco Roman antecedents and function. 4. Discuss the syncretistic character of Early Christian pictorial style. 5. Describe the development of the dome on a base from the Pantheon to Hagia Sophia. What are the problems and advantages of each system. 6. Describe the development of Byzantine pictorial style from the 6th the 14th century. Give specific examples from your textbook. 7. Discuss the way in which the technique used by the Roman architects influenced the type of buildings that they created. Use examples to illustrate your knowledge of Roman architecture. 8. What features did Early Christian architects take from Roman builders and what new techniques did they develop? 9. What specific features of Old St. Peter's were based on Roman architectural elements. How do the differences, which distinguish the Early Christian church, relate to the beliefs and practices of the Christian faith? (pages ) 10. Explore different portrayals of Christ as seen in Early Christian and Byzantine mosaic listed below: The Good Shepherd Mosaic (S07 20), Transfiguration of Christ (S07 28), and Christ Pantocrator (S07 47) considering both style and iconography. Chapter Outline (AAT4) EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART, 1st 9th CENTURIES Crucifixion of Jesus (c. A.D. 33) Constantine's Edict of Milan (A.D. 313) Early Christian art: catacombs, Old Saint Peter's Martyria, mosaics, basilicas Byzantine Empire: Justinian and Theodora (6th century) San Vitale; Hagia Sophia; domes on pendentives The codex (Vienna Genesis) Iconoclastic Controversy (8th 9th centuries) Developments in Buddhist Art, 1st 7th Centuries India: Gupta sculpture; Ajanta Caves China: Silk Roads; Yungang Caves; Longmen Caves o Paradise sects

2 [CHP. 8: EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART] P AGE 2 Summary and Study Guide Define or identify the following terms: AAT4 Key Terms abhaya mudra right hand raised, palm outward and vertical. aisle ambulatory axonometric projection baptistery bhumisparsha mudra blind niche catacomb centrally planned chaitya arch, chaitya hall clerestory cloisonné codex, codices cruciform crypt deësis decussis diptych gable gallery Greek cross icon iconography Latin cross mandorla martyrium mausoleum minaret mithuna a passageway flanking a central area (e.g., the corridors flanking the nave of a basilica or cathedral). a vaulted passageway, usually surrounding the apse or choir of a church. the depiction on a single plane of a three dimensional object by placing it at an angle to the picture plane so that three faces are visible. a building, usually round or polygonal, used for Christian baptismal services. left hand in lap, right hand reaching down, palm in and vertical, to ground level see niche. an underground complex of passageways and vaults, such as those used by Jews and early Christians to bury their dead. radiating from a central point. a splayed, horsehoe shaped curve derived from the profile of a barrel vaulted chaitya hall; used to frame doors, windows, and gables, and as a decorative motif in early south Asian architecture. the upper part of the main outer wall of a building (especially a church), located above an adjoining roof and admitting light through a row of windows. a multicolored surface made by pouring enamels into compartments outlined by bent wire fillets, or strips. sheets of parchment or vellum bound together the precursor of the modern book. shaped or arranged like a cross. a chamber or vault beneath the main body of a church. a tripartite icon in the Byzantine tradition, usually showing Christ enthroned between the Virgin Mary and Saint John the Baptist. the Latin numeral ten (X). a writing tablet or work of art consisting of two panels side by side and connected by hinges. a roof formed by the intersection of two planes sloping down from a central beam. the second story of a church, placed over the side aisles and below the clerestory. a cross in which all four arms are of equal length. a sacred image representing Christ, the Virgin Mary, or some other holy person. the analysis of works of art through the study of the meanings of symbols and images in the context of the contemporary culture. a cross in which the vertical arm is longer than the horizontal arm, through the midpoint of which it passes. an oval or almond shaped aureola, or radiance, surrounding the body of a holy person. a church or other structure built over the tomb or relics of a martyr. an elaborate tomb (named for Mausolos, a fourth century b.c. ruler commemorated by a magnificent tomb at Halikarnassos). a tall, slender tower attached to a mosque, from which the muezzin calls the Muslim faithful to prayer. a loving couple, symbolizing unity, in ancient south Asian art.

3 [CHP. 8: EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART] P AGE 3 mosque narthex nave orant parchment pendentive polyptych repoussé screen wall squinch tessera, tesserae transept tribhanga vellum veranda vihara an Islamic (Muslim) house of worship of two main types: the masjid, used for daily prayer by individuals or small groups; and the jaˉmi', used for large scale congregational prayer on the Friday sabbath and on holidays. a porch or vestibule in early Christian churches. in basilicas and churches, the long, narrow central area used to house the congregation. standing with outstretched arms as if in prayer. a paperlike material made from bleached and stretched animal hides, used in the Middle Ages for manuscripts. in a domed building, an inwardly curving triangular section of the vaulting that provides a transition from the round base of the dome to the supporting piers. a painting or relief, usually an altarpiece, composed of more than three sections. in metalwork, decorated with patterns in relief made by hammering on the reverse side. a nonsupporting wall, often pierced by windows. a small single arch, or a series of concentric corbeled arches, set diagonally across the upper inside corner of a square building to facilitate the transition to a round dome or other circular superstructure. a small piece of colored glass, marble, or stone used in a mosaic. a cross arm in a Christian church, placed at right angles to the nave. in Buddhist art, the "three bends posture," in which the head, chest, and lower portion of the body are angled instead of being aligned vertically. a cream colored, smooth surface for painting or writing, prepared from calfskin. a pillared porch preceding an interior chamber, common in Hindu temples and Buddhist chaitya halls. Buddhist monks' living quarters, either an individual cell or a space for communal activity. Early Christian Art (AP Art History) Book Chapter 11 Pagans, Christians, and Jews: The Art of Late Antiquity, pages Helpful Text Boxes The Life of Jesus in Art, p. 308 Mosaics, p. 315 Assignment Read Chapter 11 and answer the following questions in about a half page handwritten (legibly) in your notebook: What iconography is used to represent the Christ, the Christian faith and its ideas of salvation? Why was the basilica building type chosen as a template for Christian architecture? Also, pick 10 terms from the Terms section that you do not known and define them in your notebook. Use your own words and images to define and describe the term. Early Christian Terms be able to identify these by sight, explain these in relation to art, and know an example of each in relation to a work of art

4 [CHP. 8: EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART] P AGE 4 Jesus Christ St. Paul catacombs lunettes orans (orants) sarcophagus (sarcophagi) Jonah Christ as the Good Shepherd: I am the good shepherd; the good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. (John 10:11) Edict of Milan (313) Constantine (r ) Basilica Vatican St. Peter pope relics baldacchino two basic Christian building types: basilica (longitudinal plan), central plan (round building type) common uses of a central plan structure in the West: mausoleum, baptistery, private chapel, martyrium martyr mosaic ambulatory halo illuminated manuscript codex vellum and parchment parts of a basilica: nave aisles transept apse narthex clerestory windows timber roof **altar on east end of nave (enter on west end) the Evangelists: Matthew head Mark lion Luke ox John eagle Art Works know these works by sight, title, date, medium, scale, and location (original location also if moved) and be able to explain and analyze these in relation to any concept, term, element, or principle

5 [CHP. 8: EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART] P AGE 5 The Good Shepherd, the story of Jonah, and orants, painted ceiling of a cubiculum in the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, Italy, early fourth century. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, from Rome, Italy, ca Marble, /2 x 8. Old St. Peter s, Rome, begun c.319, demolished in the 16th century Santa Costanza, Rome, Italy, ca Chronology Summary and Study Guide UNIT 9 STUDY GUIDE Byzantine Art (AP Art History) Book Chapter 12 Rome in the East: The Art of Byzantium, pages Helpful Text Box Icons and Iconoclasm, p. 341 Assignment Read Chapter 12 and answer the following question in about a half page handwritten (legibly) in your notebook: 1. What is the Iconoclastic Controversy? What is it s effect on art history during this period? And throughout history why are icons controversial? Also, pick 5 terms from the Terms section that you do not known and define them in your notebook. Use your own words and images to define and describe the term. Terms be able to identify these by sight, explain these in relation to art, and know an example of each in relation to a work of art Constantine (r ) Constantinople Byzantine Justinian (r ) Theodora Golden Age of Justinian diptych equestrian portrait mandorla pendentive buttress Procopius: It seems not to be founded on solid masonry, but to be suspended from heaven by that golden chain... (in reference to the Hagia Sophia) clerestory windows Pseudo Dionysius: Light comes from the Good and...light is the visual image of God. mosaics concept of dematerializing impost blocks combination of the central plan and longitudinal plans patriarch caesaropapism

6 [CHP. 8: EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART] P AGE 6 martyrium icon Iconoclastic Controversy Greek Cross Venice Crusades Byzantine Art Works know these works by sight, title, date, medium, scale, and location (original location also if moved) and be able to explain and analyze these in relation to any concept, term, element, or principle Early Byzantine Art ( ) Justinian as world conqueror (Barberini Ivory), mid sixth century. Ivory, 1 1 1/2 X 10 1/2. Louvre, Paris. Saint Michael the Archangel, right leaf of a diptych, early sixth century. Ivory, 1 5 X 5 1/2. ANTHEMIUS OF TRALLES and ISIDORUS OF MILETUS, aerial view of Hagia Sophia (looking north), Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey, San Vitale (looking northwest), Ravenna, Italy, Apse mosaics of San Vitale, c.547: Justinian, Bishop Maximianus, and attendants, mosaic on the north wall of the apse, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, ca Theodora and attendants, mosaic on the south wall of the apse, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, ca Middle Byzantine Art ( ) Saint Mark s, Venice, Italy, begun David composing the Psalms, folio 1 verso of the Paris Psalter, ca Tempera on vellum, 1 2 1/8 X 10 1/4.

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