Chapter Nine: The Rise of Medieval Culture Charlemagne: Ruler and Diplomat ( )

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1 Chapter Nine: The Rise of Medieval Culture Charlemagne: Ruler and Diplomat ( ) Papal Coronation Leo III, Christmas 800 Revival of Western Roman Empire Feudal Administration Legal decrees Bureaucratic system Literacy Foreign Relations Byzantines, Muslims 1

2 Charlemagne: Economic Developments Stabilized the currency Denier Trade Fairs Tolerance of Jews Jewish merchants and the Near East Trade Routes Import / Export Relationships Iron Broadswords Learning in the Time of Charlemagne Palace School at Aachen Scholar-teachers Curriculum Trivium, quadrivium Mastery of texts Text reform Literary revival = Liturgical revival Literacy as prerequisite for worship Learning in the Time of Charlemagne Alcuin of York Corrected errors in the Vulgate Bible Developed Frankish school system Literacy and Women Dhouda Illuminated manuscripts 2

3 Benedictine Monasticism Early monasticism Varying monastic lifestyles No predominate rule The Rule of St. Benedict Magna Carta of monasticism Poverty, stability, obedience, chastity Balance of prayer, work, and study Horarium Women and the Monastic Life Scholastica (d. 543) St. Benedict s sister Brigit of Ireland (d. 525) Hilda, abbess of Whitby ( ) Hildegard of Bingen ( ) Monasticism and Gregorian Chant Development of sacred music Gregorian Chant Ambrosian music Mozarabic chant Frankish chant 3

4 Monasticism and Gregorian Chant Gregorian chant and Carolingian reform Gregorian characteristics Monophonic Melismatic Acapella Cantus planus neums Liturgical Music and the Rise of Drama The Liturgical Trope Verbal elaborations of textual content Added to the long melismas Aid in memorization Origin of drama in the West Quem Quæritis Medieval Literature Venerable Bede Father of English history Ecclesiastical History of the English People Beowulf Hildegard of Bingen Writer, painter, illustrator, musician, critic, preacher Scivias, Physica, Causae et Curae, Symphonia, Ordo Virtutum 4

5 9.1 Hildegard of Bingen, Vision of God s Plan for the Seasons, from De operatione Dei, The Morality Play: Everyman Links liturgical and secular drama Allegorical, moralistic Instructs for moral conversion Religious themes Life as a pilgrimage The inevitability of death (memento mori) Faith vs. Free Will Liturgical overtones The Legend of Charlemagne: Song of Roland Charlemagne canonized 1165 Reliquaries and commemoratives Epic poem Charlemagne s battle with the Basques (778) Chansons de geste, chansons d histoire Oral tradition, jongleurs Military and religious ideals 11th c. martial virtues and chivalric code Anti-Muslim bias 5

6 9.23 Reliquary of Charlemagne The Visual Arts: The Illuminated Book Carolingian manuscripts on parchment Gospel Book of Charlemagne Roman, Byzantine, Celtic styles Utrecht Psalter Masterpiece of the Carolingian Renaissance Dagulf Psalter Carved ivory book covers Carolingian miniscule 9.9 The four evangelists and their symbols, Palatine School at Aachen, early 9 th century. Manuscript illustration from the Gospel Book of Charlemagne 6

7 9.10 Drawing for Psalm 150 from the Utrecht Psalter, ca Crucifixion, ca , carved ivory panel, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, United Kingdom Carolingian Architecture Charlemagne s Palace at Aachen Kingdom modeled on ancient Rome Palace Large royal hall, lavishly decorated Joined to chapel by a long gallery Chapel Church of San Vitale (Ravenna) as model Altar to the Savior (liturgical services) Chapel to the Virgin (reliquary) Charlemagne s Throne this most wise Solomon. 7

8 The Carolingian Monastery Monastery as miniature civic center Complexity of function and design Center of life for rural populations Saint Gall plan Basilica style Designed to house 120 monks, 170 serfs The Romanesque Style Large, Roman-looking architecture Influenced by travel, expansion Pilgrimages Heavy stone arches Larger, more spacious interiors Fireproof stone and masonry roofs Church of Saint Sernin in Toulouse 9.19 Nave, Saint Sernin, ca , Toulouse, France 8

9 The Romanesque Style Exterior decoration (sculpture) Lack of interior light Portal (doorway) Jamb, capital, trumeau Tympanum (mandorla, archivolts) Church of Sainte Madeleine at Vézelay 9.20 Cathedral of Sainte-Lazare, west tympanum detail of Last Judgment, ca Chapter 9: Discussion Questions Explain the function of the Song of Roland as both religious and political propaganda during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. What values are extolled within the text that would serve religious and political leaders as they shape their culture? Do we, as a culture, subscribe to these same values today? Why or why not? Why was Charlemagne so interested in developing literacy? Explain his motives and methods for establishing schools and supporting scholars. Describe the role of the liturgical trope in the development of drama in the West. For example, how does one begin with the Quem Quæritis trope and arrive at Everyman? Explain the evolution of the art form. 9

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