Early Medieval Europe Gardner Ch. 16 (pages ) Context

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1 Early Medieval Europe Gardner Ch. 16 (pages ) Context The terms Medieval, Dark Ages, and Middle Ages describe the approximately 1000 years between the end of the Roman era and the beginning of the Renaissance; these terms were pejorative and reflect a bias toward Classical forms and traditions Small, portable objects (treasures) reflect the mobility of nomadic peoples (like Viking marauders); these small treasures were also used as currency; Migratory is a term often used to describe art work from this period Development of monasticism as a way of life; creation of religious orders, in particular the Benedictine Order (after Saint Benedict) The term refers to Charlemagne; Charlemagne, King of the Franks united Europe calling it the Holy Roman Empire; s (Saxons, enemies to the Franks) gain control shortly after Charlemagne s death and maintain dominance for the next three generations Short cut dating of cultures and art works Vikings (Norman): ca CE Anglo-Saxons: ca. 500 CE : ca CE : : Page 1

2 20 Important Dates 313 Constantine legalizes Christianity 330 Constantine formally makes Constantinople the capital of the (Eastern) Roman Empire; Constantinople is later called Byzantium; today it is called Istanbul 402 Rome is essentially abandoned as the capital of the (Western) Roman Empire 410 Ravenna (Italy) becomes the capital of the (Western) Roman Empire 476 Odoacer conquers Italy effectively ending the (Ancient)Roman Empire 527 Justinian begins rule of the (Eastern) Roman Empire 570 Mohammed born; Mecca becomes the religious center 622 Year One of the Islamic calendar 750 Islam expands from Asia Minor through North Africa to Spain 600 Pope Gregory establishes the papacy as a political power 768 Charlemagne begins rule; unites the Holy Roman Empire 800 Charlemagne is crowned 840 Viking invasions of Northern Europe 910 Abbey of Cluny founded 1095 First Crusade 1147 Second Crusade 1150 Founding of several great universities: Paris, Oxford, Cambridge and Bologna 1210 Saint Francis of Assisi founds the Franciscan Order 1348 Black Death (bubonic plague) sweeps across Europe 1453 Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks; renamed Istanbul Page 2

3 Art and Architecture Style/Date Name/Title Artist location in text Anglo-Saxon Sutton Hoo Purse Cover not known p. 409, figure 16-3 ca. 625 CE Anglo-Saxon, (specifically Merovingian) ca. 550 CE Viking ca. 834 CE Viking ca CE ca. 660 CE ca. 700 CE ca. 700 CE ca. 870 CE a pair of looped fibulae (a fibula is a garment clasp) Animal-head post, from the Viking ship burial at Oseberg in Norway (animal form and interlace, the two fundamental motifs of the warrior-lord culture) Wooden doorway of the Stave Church in Urnes, Norway Man (symbol of Saint Matthew) from the Book of Durrow, from Iona, Scotland(?) Saint Matthew page from the Lindisfarne Gospels from England Cross-inscribed carpet page from the Lindisfarne Gospels from England Chi-Rho-Iota (XPI) page from the Book of Kells, from Iona, Scotland(?) Equestrian Portrait of Charlemagne (or Charles The Bald), Metz, France Saint Matthew from the Coronation Gospels (also called the Gospel Book of Charlemagne) St. Matthew from the Ebbo Gospels (also called the Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims) Crucifixion, front cover of the Lindau Gospels Palatine (Royal) Chapel of Charlemagne in Aachen, Germany not known p. 408, figures 16-2 not known p. 410, figure 16-4 not known p. 411, figure 16-5 not known p. 412, figure 16-6 not known p. 413, figure 16-7 not known p. 406, figure 16-1 not known p. 414, figure 16-8 not known p. 416, figure not known p. 417, figure not known p. 417, figure not known p. 418, figure not known p. 419, figures and Page 3

4 Saint Michael s, Hildesheim, Germany including the bronze doors and the column Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero for Cologne Cathedral, Germany Abbess Uta Dedicating her Codex to the Virgin from the Uta Codex, Germany not known p , figures 16-22, 23, 24 and 25 not known p. 425, figure not known p. 426, figure Vocabulary Term Beowulf, p. 408 zoomorphic, (serpentine) p. 408 fibula, p. 408 cloisonné, cloisons, soldering, p. 409 interlacements, p. 409 staves, p. 410 Hibernia, p. 410 Insular, p. 410 scriptoria (fig ), carpet page Vulgate, manuscriptus, Pentateuch, gospels Eusebius of Caesarea, Psalter, Lectionary, breviaries, Sacramentaries, benedictionals, Book of Hours, p. 411 the four evangelists Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, p. 412 relic, p. 413 Definition Page 4

5 Mozarabic, p. 415 repoussé, p. 418 Benedict of Nursia, p. 420 Regula Sancti Benedicti, p. 420 abbey, abbot, abbess, p. 420 cloister, p. 421 westwork, p. 421 alternate support system (at Gernrode), p. 422 Virgo Virginum, p. 427 Ornamental Art (Decorative) Iconic Art (Symbolic) interlace patter and complex design Icon = an image symbolic of an idea complex pattern composed of a single line which overlaps and intertwines organic and animal forms simplified and abstracted into geometric patterns decorative elements can dominate geometric organization with extreme complexity in design and elements conceptual experience of the work of art simplification of an image into an easily recognizable form clarity of purpose unambiguous image the decorative elements are secondary to the central image or icon simplification and stylization miniaturist sensibility extremely fine work Page 5

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