The Significance of Paris. Center of Western civilization ( ) Distinct cultural expression. Chapter Ten: High Middle Ages

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1 Chapter Ten: High Middle Ages The Significance of Paris Center of Western civilization ( ) Gothic architecture Scholasticism The University Distinct cultural expression Classical texts Judeo-Christian worldview Religious reforms 1

2 The Gothic Style: Saint Denis Abbot Suger ( ) Saint Denis and Charlemagne Pilgrimage destination Lendit Choir, double ambulatory Defining Gothic Gothic vs. Romanesque 10.2 Abbey church of Saint-Denis, France The Gothic Style Laon Cathedral Notre Dame Cathedral Chartres Cathedral 2

3 10.5 Laon Cathedral, interior The Mysticism of Light Luminous quality of the Gothic Suger s theology of beauty Neo-Platonic philosophy, purity of light Stained glass windows Lux Nova vs. Byzantine mosaics Bible of the Poor Notre Dame de Belle Verrier )(Our Lady of the Beautiful Window ), stained-glass window, Chartres Cathedral, France, early 13 th century 3

4 10.11 Tympanum, right door royal portal west façade, Chartres Cathedral, France Gargoyles on Notre-Dame, Paris, France 10.8 Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, as rebuilt after

5 10.15 Vintner s window, glass roundel, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, 1215 To Teach and Edify Learning, wisdom, and God Collaboration of builders, theologians History of salvation in decoration Gargoyles Many Meanings of the Gothic Cathedral Social functions Cathedral Square Church courts / civil courts Horarium Economic impact Pilgrimages, trade fairs, feast days Prestigious donations by guilds 5

6 Many Meanings of the Gothic Cathedral Motivation to build Actual design and construction Villard de Honnecourt s notebook Combination of human knowledge and religious faith Pilgrim as central metaphor Music: The School of Notre Dame Musical notation Guido d Arezzo Polyphony of organum Léonin s Magnus Liber Organi Pérotin and counterpoint The Motet Scholasticism: The Rise of the Universities Demand for an educated class Support for socioeconomic structures Intellectual and cultural needs Ancient texts (Aristotle) Relationships with Arab scholars Renaissance of legal studies Dialectics Peter Abelard Scholasticism 6

7 Map 10.2 The University Jacobello and Pier Piero dalle Mesegne, Students, Scholasticism: The Rise of the Universities University of Paris William of Champeaux ( ) Peter Abelard ( ) Universitas Magistri / doctors Art vs. Theology Student financial assistance Curriculum and instruction 7

8 Scholasticism: The Rise of the Universities Student culture and lifestyles Women not admitted to universities Educated by private tutors or in convents Few exceptions to the rule (Italy, Germany) Medieval Literature Troubadours and Trobairitz Guillem de Peiteus Bernart de Ventadorn Beatriz, The Comtessa de Dia Bertran de Born Saint Golias Goliardic Verse Carmina Burana The Romance of the Rose Medieval Religion, Philosophy, and Writing Moses Maimonides ( ) The Guide for the Perplexed The reality of God Theories about the beginnings and eternality of the universe Celebration of the Sabbath Human intelligence Why people are responsible for the evil that befalls them Formulated 13 principles of Jewish faith 8

9 Francis of Assisi Mendicant brotherhood Life of total poverty, mobility Humanity of Christ Literal interpretation of the Gospels Stigmata Goodness of God s creation Concern for all creatures Affective and emotional religion Bonaventura Berlinghieri, Scenes from the Life of St. Francis, Altarpiece panel, 1235 Medieval Religion, Philosophy, and Writing Thomas Aquinas ( ) Intellectual and mystic Master of the Sacred Page Sought to harmonize reason and revelation Fideism vs. Rationalism Summa Theologica Intellectual tradition of Aristotle Hierarchical, synthetic worldview 9

10 10.21 Andrea di Buonaiuto, The Triumph of St. Thomas Aquinas, 1365, Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy Chapter 10: Discussion Questions Consider the pilgrimage both as a metaphorical and literal journey. What role did the pilgrimage play during the Middle Ages? What specific qualities are present in Gothic architecture that are not present in the Romanesque? What is the symbolic message inherent in each architectural style? Explain the hierarchical and synthetic natures of the Gothic cathedral and Aquinas Summa Theologica. In what ways are they hierarchical? What is being synthesized in these artistic and intellectual examples? In what ways is this a commentary on the patterns of thought during the Middle Ages? 10

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