Roman Art. Key Notions. Timeline 10/02/ Arch/vault/dome -Basilica -Equestrian statue -Forum -Oculus. Or, Imperial Art

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1 700 BCE - Etruscan Supremacy BCE Roman Republic BCE The Punic Wars 44 BCE Julius Caesar assassinated 27 BCE 395 CE Roman Empire 70 CE - Titus Conquest of Jerusalem Colosseum 79 Eruption of Vesuvius Dome of Parthenon Emperor Marcus Aurelius 395 Division of Empire Roman Art Or, Imperial Art Key Notions -Arch/vault/dome -Basilica -Equestrian statue -Forum -Oculus Timeline 1

2 Italy and Region The Punic Wars First Punic War ( BC) Second Punic War ( BC) Third Punic War ( BC) Source: 17, 12 & 18 Ancient Italy Etruria, Latium, and Sicilia Source: 8 2

3 Reconstructed model of the temple of Apollo Veii, Italy, c. 500 BCE Cellae Pronaos Podium Maison carrée Nîmes, France, c. 19 BCE, 18 x 36 m Pronaos Cella Podium Source: 4 Maison carrée Seen from back and plan Cella Pronaos Source: 7 3

4 Roman Architecture Arch, vault, and dome Caementicium Pantheon The arch, vault and dome Arch a-voussoir b-keystone c-springer Post-andlintel Barrel vault Groined vault Dome Jupiter Sanctuary Cement for arches and vaults, Anxur, II-I BCE Source: 8 4

5 Pantheon Rome, c , 43,6 m high Source: 12 Giovanni Paolo Panini, The Interior of the Pantheon c , Oil on canvas, 128 x 100 cm, National Gallery, Washington Source: 1 (image) Pantheon: plan and elevation Source: 3 3D model of the Pantheon 5

6 Roman Sculpture Imperial arches Imperial statues Arch of Titus Rome, c. 81 CE, Marble, 15 x 12 m; and detail Source: 1 Arch of Titus Rome, c. 81 CE, Marble, 15 x 12 m; and detail Source: 1 6

7 Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome, c. 173 CE, Bronze, 5,1 m Source: 1 Roman Urbanization Roman Forum Baths Aqueducts Apollodorus of Damascus, Forum of Trajan c. 113 CE, 91 x 107 m (central square) Source: 1 7

8 Apollodorus of Damascus, Forum of Trajan c. 113 CE, 91 x 107 m (central square) Source: 16 Baths of Caracalla Rome, CE, 228 x 116 x 38,5 m high Source: 1 Baths of Caracalla Rome, CE Source: 3 8

9 Baths of Caracalla, Frigidarium Rome, CE Source: 4 3D model of the Baths of Caracalla Pont du Gard (over Gardon River) Nîmes, France, CE, stone, 269 x 49,38 m Source: 3 The Seven Hills of Ancient Rome Source: 1 9

10 I. Gismondi, Ancient Rome 4th Century CE, Museum of Roman Civilization, Rome Source: 3 The Colosseum The Pearl of Roman Architecture Classical Orders with Tuscan and Composite Tuscan Doric Ionic Four-sided Corinthian Composite Source: 11 10

11 Colosseum Rome, CE, 199 x 156 x 48,8 m 4th level: engaged Corinthian pilasters 3rd level: engaged Corinthian columns Source: 8 2nd level: engaged Ionic columns 1st level: engaged Tuscan columns Colosseum Rome, CE, 199 x 156 x 48,8 m Colosseum Rome, CE, 199 x 156 x 48,8 m Source: 4 11

12 Gladiatorial games Velarium Colosseum Rome, CE, 199 x 156 x 48,8 m Christian Martyrdom?! Source: 12 3D model of the Colosseum Review Romans had no qualms integrating and combining elements from other cultures into its own, especially when they served imperial purposes Roman technological savviness, namely the use of cement and the arch, permitted the construction of impressive interior spaces The Colosseum, the Roman version of the Acropolis, offered the citizens of Rome business and entertainment Conclusion Roman sculpture was used to heighten the emperor s prestige, namely by its size and realism, to rival the gods Roman architecture served 2 important functions: 1) the smooth administration of the empire; and 2) to show the world the supremacy of Roman culture by its technically superior constructions 12

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