Roman Art c 509 BCE 337 CE

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1 Roman Art c 509 BCE 337 CE Republican era (no monarch) 509 BCE 27 BCE Early and High Empire Late Empire

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4 Romans c 509 BCE 337 CE Republican era (no monarch) 509 BCE 27 BCE Dominated Italy 280 BCE on Punic Wars vs. Phoenicians of Carthage BCE Conquered and absorbed Hellenistic Greeks BCE Senate of Patricians Other citizens: Plebians 3 rd class: Slaves

5 Rome, 4 th century CE

6 Temple of Fortuna Virilis (Temple of Portunus), Rome c 74 BCE

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8 Maison Carree, Nimes

9 Frieze with vegetal/floral designs Stepped up architrave Corinthian capitals with acanthus leaves (make the columns sacred)

10 On podium, only stairs in the front Pseudo-peripteral (fake peristyle of engag columns) No sculpture on the pediment or frieze

11 Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Palestrina. Using flexible concrete, arches, vaults, and engineering to overcome nature s complications.

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13 Concrete: more flexible and durable, more structurally sound, lighter, easier to work and transport, and cheaper than stone

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15 Veneered concrete

16 The Roman House

17 atrium

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21 Dionysiac mystery frieze, Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, BCE. Fresco.

22 Silenus, satyr with the gift of prophecy Dionysus/Bacchus Probably initiation of a novice into the Bacchic (Dionysiac) mystery cult

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24 Purifcation ritual brought the novice to enlightenment and a blissful union with her god

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27 Gardenscape from the Villa of Livia, BCE

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29 3-D illusionism created with: -linear perspective (intuitive or actual) -atmospheric perspective -shading and highlighting -diminishing size -higher horizon -overlapping

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40 Head of Roman patrician

41 Roman Patrician With heads of his ancestors; Note veristic approach vs. idealization

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44 Julius Caesar, emperor BCE. His grandnephew, Octavian, ruled the Senate 43-27BCE until

45 The Empire, begun 27 BCE with Augustus (Octavian). Imperial Rome 27 BCE-395 CE

46 Augustus of Primaporta (as a general), c 20 BCE. 6 8

47 Portrait both ideal and realistic (specific to Octavian) Cuirass (breastplate) commemorates a contemporary scene: Victory over the Parthians Putto/Cupid and dolphin, Attributes of Venus. Refer to Augustus divine ancestry (Aeneas, Venus son). His bare feet refer to apotheosis: his elevation to divine status on death

48 Aullus Tellus, the Orator (Etruscan artist, 1 st c BCE)

49 Livia, Augustus wife

50 Ara Pacis, Altar of Augustan Peace, 13-9 BCE

51 garlands

52 Tellus (Mother Earth)? from Ara Pacis, 13-9 BCE Land Wind: fertility of Roman lands Sea Wind: dominance of the Mediterranean

53 Personification of Pax, peace; Mother Earth; All together, allegory of peace and prosperity of Pax Romana

54 Procession of the imperial family, dedicating the Ara Pacis, Ara Pacis, 13-9 BCE

55 Marcus Agrippa (named Augustus successor), Gaius Caesar (his son), Livia (Augustus wife), Tiberius (Livia s older son and next emperor), Antonia (niece of Augustus), her son Germanicus, her husband Drusus (Livia s younger son), Antonia s older sister and her children

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58 Pont-du-Gard, NImes, France c 16 BCE

59 arcade 82 arches/ arcade Carried water 30 miles; Each Roman used 100 gallons of water a day 82 barrel vault/tunnel vault No mortar or cement

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64 amphitheater

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66 Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, c CE Give them bread and circuses.

67 Seated 50,0000; seats 160 high; with 76 entrances could be emptied in minutes;

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70 2 rows of barrel vaults circled the arena; also used for entrance tunnels Groin vaults (2 barrel vaults meeting at right angles and intersecting) at every intersection

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74 Corinthian pilasters (engaged piers), without arcades Corinthian order, engaged Ionic order, engaged Tuscan order (Doric on pedestals) engaged columns

75 Vespasian

76 Portrait of Flavian woman

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78 Vespasian

79 Titus

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84 Arch of Titus, Rome after 81 CE. 50 (triumphal arch commemorating victory over the Jews & destruction of Jerusalem, 70 CE)

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86 Spoils of Jerusalem, from the Arch of Titus, after 81 CE. 7

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88 Note: atmospheric perspective used in sculptural relief

89 Triumph of Titus, from the Arch of Titus, after 81 CE

90 Domitian

91 Forum of Trajan, Rome (by Apollodorus of Damascus), dedicated 112 CE

92 Basilica nave Apse ( semi-circular extension/room)

93 Basilica Ulpia, Rome

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95 Basilica Ulpia reconstruction, (with clerestory, colonnade, upper gallery)

96 Column of Trajan (mausoleum for Trajan), dedicated 112 CE. Marble; About 100 ; frieze 656 long, from 3-4 high; 2,500 figures; 150 episodes;

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98 Romans crossing the Danube, from the Column of Trajan Danube River God

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101 Propaganda aimed at Plebians so less illusionistic, more legible

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106 Hadrian

107 Pantheon (temple to all the gods), Rome, c CE

108 2 perfect intersecting circles, 143 x 143 ; Symbolizing the universe, the dome of heaven and Rome as the center of the universe

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110 29 oculus eye of Jupiter; No keystone/capstone necessary! Coffers; recessed panels Corinthian portico 7 niches for the 7 planetary gods Rotunda (round building, usually with a dome) Dome set on a 20 thick drum with barrel vaults inside

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113 Concrete with marble veneer

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115 Mummy portrait from Faiyum, Egypt, encaustic on wood

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117 Late Empire CE

118 Caracalla, c CE

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120 Baths of Caracalla, Rome ( CE)

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122 Groin vaults;in the nave, so: weight on the piers (not walls); higher ceilings and holes in the walls possible Galleries and clerestories

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125 Ludovisi Battle Sarcopagus, Battle of Romans and Barbarians

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130 The Four Tetrarchs, 305 CE Diocletian, Augustus of the East, Maximian, Augustus of the West, & 2 Caesars

131 Late Imperial style: -less idealized (but faces identical), -less naturalistic (& proportions wrong), -more patterning, -larger eyes, -Symbolism/meaning more important than naturalism

132 Constantine the Great. (head 8 6 ) Ruled CE; defeated co-ruler to become sole emperor

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136 Basilica Nova (Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius), CE

137 Groin vaults in nave; weight on piers only Barrel vaults in side aisles; Buttressed piers and groin vaults clerestory apse

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139 Aula Palatina (Basilica of Trier), Trier, Germany, early 4 th century

140 Aula Palatina, Trier

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143 Fall of Rome 330 Constantine shifted the capital to Constantinope (Byzantium) 395 empire divided, only the eastern empire in Constantinople secure 410 Visigoths sacked Rome (next Attila the Hun & others) 455 Vandals sacked Rome 476 Fall of Rome, Beginning of the Dark Ages in Europe

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