Lecture Outline. I. The Age of Augustus (31 B.C.E. C.E. 14) A. The New Order. 1. Princeps. 2 Senate. 3. Army. a. 28 Legions 150,000 men

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1 Chapter 6: The Roman Empire Learning Objectives In this chapter, students will focus on: The changes Augustus made in Rome s political, military, and social institutions, in order to solve problems faced during the late Republic The chief features of the Roman Empire at its height during the 2 nd century The chief intellectual, artistic, and social developments in the early Empire The problems faced by the Roman Empire during the 3 rd century The characteristics of Christianity that enabled it to grow and triumph Lecture Outline I. The Age of Augustus (31 B.C.E. C.E. 14) A. The New Order 1. Princeps 2 Senate 3. Army a. 28 Legions 150,000 men b. Auxiliaries 130,000 men c. Praetorian Guard 1. Imperator 2. Provincial Government 3. Frontier Policy 4. Attempts to conquer Germany a. Battle of Teutoburg Forest (9 C.E.) II. Augustan Society A. Social Stratification 1. Senators a. Own property worth 1 million sesterces 2. Equestrians 166

2 a. Own property worth 400,000 sesterces 3. Lower Class a. Little political power B. Roman Morals and Social Reform III. A Golden Age of Latin Literature A. Virgil (70 19 B.C.E.) 1. The Aeneid B. Horace (65 8 B.C.E.) C. Ovid (43 B.C.E. C.E. 18) D. Livy (59 B.C.E. C.E. 17) IV. The Early Empire (14 180) A. Julio-Claudian Dynasty (14 68) 1. Abuses and corruption 2. Nero (54 68) 3. Civil War Year of the Four Emperors (69) B. The Flavians (69 96) 1. Vespasian (69 79) C. The Five Good Emperors (96 180) 1. Period of Peace and Prosperity 2. Power of Emperor increased at expense of the Senate 3. Trajan (98 117) 4. Hadrian ( ) V. The Roman Empire at its Height: Frontiers and Provinces A. Empire at its Height million square miles

3 2. 50 million people B. Roman Frontiers C. Role of the Army D. Romanization E. Cities and Towns 1. Municipal Administration 2. Romanization VI. Prosperity in the Early Empire A. Trade B. Manufacturing C. Agriculture 1. Latifundias D. Gulf between Rich and Poor VII. The Silver Age of Latin Literature A. Seneca (4 B.C.E. C.E. 65) 1. Stoicism B. Tacitus (56 120) 1. Annals 2. Histories 3. Germania C. Juvenal (c. 55 c. 128) 1. Satire VIII. Art in the Early Empire A. Little original contribution B. Roman innovation in architecture

4 C. Roman Engineering IX. Imperial Rome A. 1 million people B. Overcrowded and noisy city C. Insulae apartment blocks D. Dangers fire and building collapse E. Public Buildings 1. Temples, Forums, Markets, Baths, Theaters, Govt. Buildings and Amphitheaters F. Food for the Poor G. Entertainment 1. Bread and Circuses X. The Art of Medicine A. Early Roman Medicine B. Greek Influence C. First public doctors attached to the army D. Galen ( ) XI. Roman Law in the Early Empire A. The Classical Age of Roman Law 1. Natural Rights 2. Basis for laws of present-day Western civilization XII. The Upper-Class Roman Family A. Paterfamilias B. Roles of women 1. Considerable freedom 2. Separate female sections

5 3. Influenced politics through their husbands XIII. Gladiatorial Shows A. First in 29 B.C.E. B. The Colosseum C. Gladiatorial Wild Beasts D. Fulfilled a political and social need XIV. Crisis in the Third Century A. The Terrible Third Century 1. Septimius Severus ( ) a. Severan Rulers ( ) b. Military Monarchy 2. Military Anarchy ( ) a. Civil Wars b. 22 Emperors in five decades c. Germanic and Persian invasions d. Decline in trade and agriculture e. Financial Weakness XV. The Development of Christianity a. The Religious World of the Roman Empire 1. State Religion focused on gods and goddesses 2. Cult of the Emperors 3. Mystery Religions a. Mithraism XVI. The Jewish Background A. Judaea

6 1. Made Roman Province in 6 C.E. B. Jewish Groups 1. Sadducees 2. Pharisees 3. Essenes 4. Zealots XVII. The Origins of Christianity A. Jesus of Nazareth (c. 6 B.C.E. C.E. 29) 1. Preached humility, charity and brotherly love B. Messiah C. Paul of Tarsus (c. 5 c. 67) 1. Second Founder of Christianity D. Spread of Christianity 1. Pauline Epistles 2. Early Christians mostly Jews 3. Increasing number of non-jews converted in the second century E. Roman views of Christianity XVIII. The Growth of Christianity A. Centralized Organization 1. Bishops B. Appeal 1. Message of Salvation 2. Familiarity 3. Universality Open to men and women 4. Fulfilled human need to belong

7 C. Women and Christianity D. Systematic persecutions in the third century Glossary Auxiliaries: troops enlisted from the subject peoples of the Roman Empire to supplement the regular legions composed of Roman citizens. Coloni: free tenant farmers who paid rent in labor, produce or cash. Eucharist: a Christian sacrament in which consecrated bread and wine are consumed in celebration of Jesus Last Supper; also called the Lord s Supper or communion. Good emperors: the five emperors who ruled from 96 to 180 (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius), a period of peace and prosperity for the Roman Empire. Infanticide: the practice of killing a child; one of several means of limiting family size in the late Republic and early Empire among upper-class families. Latifundia: large landed estates in the Roman Empire (singular: latifundium). Mystery religions: religions that involve initiation into secret rites that promise intense emotional involvement with spiritual forces and a greater chance of individual immortality. Paterfamilias: the dominant male in a Roman family whose powers over his wife and children were theoretically unlimited, though they were sometimes circumvented in practice. Pax Romana: Roman peace. A term used to refer to the stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the Mediterranean world and much of western Europe during the first and second centuries C.E. Praetorian guard: the military unit that served as the personal bodyguard of the Roman emperors. Principate: the form of government established by Augustus for the Roman Empire; continued the constitutional forms of the Republic and consisted of the princeps ( first citizen ) and the senate, although the princeps was clearly the dominant partner. Tetrarchy: rule by four; the system of government established by Diocletian ( ) in which the Roman Empire was divided into two parts, each ruled by an Augustus assisted by a Caesar. Document Based Questions Chapters 3 through 6: A Review of Classical Civilizations Directions: The following question is based on the listed documents, available on the corresponding pages in your textbook. Some of the documents have been edited or excerpted. Question: Using the documents and illustrations, analyze the relationship between the citizen and the state in classical civilization. What was the role of a citizen in classical civilization? Background: Beginning in the 8 th century B.C.E., the Greeks and later the Romans developed a new concept of the state and the role of the citizen. Modern Europe would eventually adopt and adapt this concept. Part A Questions Chapters 3 through 6: A Review of Classical Civilizations A. Illustration: The Hoplite Forces (Ch. 3) What style of warfare does this vase painting depict? What were the social, and eventually political, implications of this style of warfare?

8 B. Document: Athenian Democracy: The Funeral Oration of Pericles (Ch. 3) According to Pericles, on what basis is a man judged in a democracy? According to Pericles, what are the obligations of an Athenian citizen? C. Illustration: Doryphoros (Ch. 3) What is the subject of this sculpture? In what way does this sculpture reflect the Greek ideals? D. Document: The Politics of Aristotle (Ch. 3) In this selection, what need of man does Aristotle discuss? According to Aristotle, why is it evident that man has this need? E. Document: Demosthenes Condemns Philip of Macedonia (Ch. 4) According to Demosthenes, what has the Athenian assembly conceded to Philip of Macedon? Why, according to Demosthenes, is it worse to have suffered at the hands of Philip of Macedon than the Spartans or the Athenian ancestors? What bias might this author have? F. Document: The Twelve Tables (Ch. 5) Based on the Twelve Tables, what might a Roman citizen expect from his government? Why is it important that these laws were codified, written down, and publicly displayed? G. Document: Cincinnatus Saves Rome: A Roman Morality Play (Ch. 5) Why does Cincinnatus put on his toga? What happens once Cincinnatus puts on his toga? According to Livy, why are the people of the city not pleased to see Cincinnatus? What does Cincinnatus do once he defeats the Aequi? H. Illustration: Schoolmaster and Pupils (Ch. 5) What was the focus of a wealthy Roman s education? For what role did this education prepare the students? I. Document: The Decline of the Roman Republic (Ch. 5) According to Sallust, what were the values of Roman citizens when Rome was strong? According to Sallust, what were the values of Roman citizens that caused the decline of Rome? J. Document: The Achievements of Augustus (Ch. 6) Which achievements of Augustus imply that he ruled democratically? Which achievements of Augustus imply a less democratic side to his rule? What is the author s intent in creating this document?

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