Page 183: Be able to label the Plan of the Villa of the Mysteries for READING QUIZ 17: Atrium, pool, peristyle, entrance foyer

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1 This chapter first explores Etruscan culture, religion and art. We will go on to discuss the origins of the Roman Republic and the sculpture and architecture that they developed. The final pages of this chapter explore Roman architecture, mosaics, urban planning, monumental sculpture, portrait sculpture and equestrian sculpture. The chapter also explores Roman rulers and the enduring influence of Constantine on Christianity. Major Roman architectural achievements such as Pantheon (not to be confused with Parthenon) and Colosseum are covered. We will be studying selected sections of Jewish, Early Christian and Byzantine Art as our next topic. Feel free to scan the pages in that section and take some notes in order to get a head start.

2 TERMS: Atrium (160), cistern (160), roundels (160), pilasters (160), tufa (160), Tuscan order (161), Composite order (163 & 187), plinth (163), dado (163 & 182), stucco (165), cistae (166), patricians (169), plebeians (169), verism (170), arcade (172), engaged column (173), mausoleum (177), cameo (178), forum (178), intuitive perspective (184), still lifes (185), triumphal arch (187), barrel vault (188), groin vault (188), oculus (188 & 197), menorah (188),cartouche (189), basilica (192), nave (192), apse (192), Pantheon (196), rotunda (197), coffers (197), exedrae (199), veneer (201), emblemata (202), tetrarchy (204), tondo (210), undercutting (214), diptych (215) DIAGRAMS: Be able to label all three diagrams for READING QUIZ 16: Page 172: Round Arch: Keystone, spandrel, jamb, voussoirs, bay, intrados, extrados, pier Page 188: Barrel Vault: Buttress Page 188: Groin Vault: Piers Page 163: Be able to label the Tuscan order diagram for READING QUIZ 16: Cornice, frieze, architrave, capital, shaft, base, dado, plinth, pedestal, entablature Page 183: Be able to label the Plan of the Villa of the Mysteries for READING QUIZ 17: Atrium, pool, peristyle, entrance foyer MAP IDENTIFICATION: Map Identification for READING QUIZ 17 (161): Regions: Waterways: Cities: Landmarks: Etruria, Latium, Gaul, Dacia, Hispania Po River, Tyrrhenian Sea Rome, Milan, Pompeii, Venice, Nimes, Tarquinia Hadrian s Wall, Alps CONCEPTS TO KNOW: We know much about Roman culture compared to other ancient cultures for 2 reasons: Vast literary legacy, including poetry, philosophy & descriptions of everyday events Large qualities of monuments throughout the Roman Empire, many still exist The Roman Empire was a melting pot, so Roman sculpture and painting reflect many origins Religious architecture: Temples Secular architecture: Aqueducts, Colosseum, Pantheon Sculpture: Great political/military leaders were honored by having statues made of them Portraits, narrative relief

3 POSSIBLE QUESTIONS: Know who Vitruvius was (160) Know the structural differences between Greek temples and Etruscan temples (161) Compare and contrast the Etruscan Apollo with the Greek Anavysos Kouros (162) Describe Roman religion in the Republican Period (169) Know the principal purpose of Roman portraiture ( ) Know the structural differences between Greek temples and Roman temples (173) Know the importance of Ara Pacis Augustae ( ) Who was Trajan and what were his major accomplishments (191, etc.)? Who was Hadrian and what were his major accomplishments (191, etc.)? How is Column of Trajan a piece of imperial propaganda? ( ) Know who was responsible for building Pantheon (196) Know the basic achievements of Commodus, Caracalla, Constantine, and Diocletian Know how The Tetrarchs shows a change in the Roman attitudes towards sculpture (207) How does Arch of Constantine serve as a bridge between Classical and Middle Ages? ( ) Know what the Edict of Milan accomplished (208) Know that Antiquity is a general term used to describe ancient times, esp. Greek/Roman ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN HISTORY: Etruscan civilization forms a chronological and geographic buffer zone between the Greeks and Romans Villanovans came to Italy from Europe around 1000 BCE & established a culture It is likely that the Etruscans are descendants of the Villanovans Etruscans had own language, competed w Greeks (contemporaries) for regional supremacy Etruscans used the Greek alphabet, but no Etruscan literature exists today Height of Etruscan power was during the 7 th and 6 th centuries BCE Etruscans were famous for their metalwork, as copper and iron were common in Italy Etruscans never formed a unified nation and were divided into city-states (like Greece) Etruscans gradually lost land to Romans, who ended their stronghold on Italy by 270 BCE Etruscan civilization was not especially lengthy, lasting roughly 450 years ( BCE) ETRUSCAN TOMBS and FUNERARY BELIEFS: Funeral urns were used and began to gradually take on human form as time went on Some funeral murals show the deceased enjoying themselves; first known time in history As Etruscan culture progressed, their view of death became fearful and uncertain ETRUSCAN TEMPLES AND THEIR DECORATION: Temple designs were similar to Greek temples, but no stone was used (tufa and wood) Rarely is sculpture placed on the temple, but there were some attempts to do this

4 LECTURE SLIDES: TITLE TIME PERIOD YEAR Map of The Ancient Roman World A Painter at Work, House of the Surgeon Julio-Claudian 100 BCE-100CE Etruscan funerary urns Etruscan Porta Augusta Etruscan 3 rd 2 nd century BCE Reconstruction of an Etruscan Temple Model COMPARE TO: Parthenon High Classical Greek BCE Plan of Etruscan Temple and Parthenon Apollo* (Vulca?) Etruscan BCE Diagram highlighting ridgepole COMPARE TO: Anavysos Kouros Archaic Greek 530 BCE Elements of Architecture: Roman Orders Façade of the Library of Celsus Ephesus, Turkey 135 CE Boys Climbing Rocks and Diving, Tarquinia, Italy Etruscan 6 th century BCE Dancers and Diners, Tarquinia, Italy Etruscan BCE Various Etruscan tomb paintings Etruscan 5 th century BCE La Banditaccia Necropolis, Cerveteri, Italy Etruscan 2 nd -5 th century BCE Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerveteri, Italy Etruscan 3 rd century BCE Reclining Couple on Sarcophagus*, Cerveteri, Italy Etruscan 520 BCE Sarcophagus of Lars Pulena, Tarquinia, Italy Etruscan 2 nd century BCE Chimera of Arezzo, Arezzo, Italy Etruscan 4 th century BCE Married Couple Embracing Etruscan BCE The Ficorini Cista Etruscan BCE Mirror Etruscan BCE Head of a Man Brutus * Etruscan 300 BCE She Wolf Etruscan 500 BCE Patrician Carrying Portrait Busts of two Ancestors Republican 1 st c. BCE-1 st c. CE Portrait Head of an Elder** Republican 80 BCE Pompey the Great* Republican 50 BCE Aulus Metellus* Republican 80 BCE

5 Denarius with Portrait of Julius Caesar Republican 44 BCE Elements of Architecture: The Roman Arch Pont du Gard*, Nimes, France Republican 100 BCE Segovia Aqueduct, Spain Republican 100 CE Temple of Vesta, Rome Republican 100 BCE Temple of Hercules Republican 2 nd or 1 st century BCE Temple (of Portunus?) Republican 2 nd century BCE Plan of a Roman Temple (of Portunus?) Maison Carrée Republican 20 BCE Roman Forum Early Empire 1 CE Augustus of Primaporta* (unpainted) Early Empire 20 CE Augustus of Primaporta (painted) Early Empire 20 CE S.P.Q.R. images modern photographs Reconstruction of Ara Pacis Augustae 9 BCE Ara Pacis Augustae** (Altar of Augustan Peace) Early Empire 9 BCE Imperial Procession (Ara Pacis)* Early Empire 9 BCE Allegory of Pax (Peace) (Ara Pacis)* Early Empire 9 BCE Mausoleum: Mausolos at Halikarnassos Greek 353 BCE Mausolus, from Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Greek Late Classical 360 BCE Gemma Augustea* Early Empire 1 st century CE Livia (wife of Augustus) Early Empire 1 st century CE Pompeii Modern photograph Reconstruction Drawing of Pompeii Plan of House of the Vettii, Pompeii CE Reconstruction, House of Silver Wedding, Pompeii 1 st century CE Various Pompeian Street scenes Early Empire 79 CE Plan of Villa of the Mysteries 2 nd century BCE Peristyle Garden, House of Vettii*, Pompeii Early Empire CE Atrium, House of Vettii, Pompeii Early Empire CE Topiary landscaping example modern photograph Room, House of Vettii, Pompeii Early Empire CE

6 Fountain Mosaic, wall niche, Pompeii Early Empire 79 CE Ixion Room, House of the Vettii, Pompeii Early Empire CE Cupids Making Perfume, House of Vettii, Pompeii Early Empire CE Initiation Rites of the Cult of Bacchus(?)*, Pompeii Early Empire BCE Garden Scene, Villa of Livia at Primaporta, Rome Early Empire 79 CE Bedroom, House of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale Early Empire 1 st century BCE Cityscape, House of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale Early Empire 1 st century BCE Still Life, House of the Stags (Cervi), Herculaneum Early Empire before 79 CE Portrait of a Married Couple, Pompeii Early Empire mid-1 st century CE Young Woman Writing Early Empire 79 CE Arch of Titus* Early Empire 81 CE Spoils from Temple of Solomon*, Arch of Titus Early Empire 81 CE Triumphal Procession of Titus in Chariot, Arch of Titus Early Empire 81 CE COMPARE TO: Imperial Procession (Ara Pacis) Early Empire 9 BCE Elements of Architecture: Roman Vaulting Flavian Amphitheater* Early Empire CE Reconstruction Drawing of Flavian Amphitheater CE Section of Flavian Amphitheater CE Young Flavian Woman* Early Empire 90 CE Middle Aged Flavian Woman* Early Empire 90 CE Vespasian Early Empire CE Model of Imperial Rome 324 CE Plan of Trajan s Forum and Market CE Restored Perspective view of the Central Hall, Basilica Ulpia 112 CE Reconstruction of Trajan s Market High Imperial CE Trajan s Market High Imperial CE Main Hall, Trajan s Market High Imperial CE Column of Trajan* High Imperial CE Column of Trajan, statue of Saint Peter (Sixtus V) Italian Renaissance 1588 CE Pantheon* High Imperial CE Reconstruction Drawing of Pantheon High Imperial CE

7 Plan of Pantheon High Imperial CE COMPARE TO: Rotunda at West Atrium, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Plan of Hadrian s Villa, Tivoli High Imperial CE Hadrian s Villa, Tivoli* High Imperial 135 CE Battle of Centaurs and Wild Beasts, Hadrian s Villa High Imperial 128 CE Hadrian s Wall, Great Britain High Imperial 200 CE Hadrian/Constantine Hunting Boar and Sacrificing to Apollo High Imperial CE Constantine Addressing the Roman People in the Roman Forum High Imperial CE The Upswept Floor High Imperial 200 CE Marcus Aurelius Equestrian** High Imperial 176 CE COMPARE TO: Aulus Metellus Republican 80 BCE COMPARE TO: Apollo with Lapiths and Centaurs Early Classical Commodus as Hercules* High Imperial CE COMPARE TO: Herakles Driving a Bull to Sacrifice Archaic Greek BCE Sarcophagus with the Indian Triumph of Dionysus High Imperial 190 CE Battle Between Romans/Barbarians, Ludovisi Sarcophagus High Imperial 250 CE Asiatic Sarcophagus (Melfi, Italy) High Imperial CE Septimus Severus, Julia Domna, and children, Geta/Caracalla Late Empire 200 CE COMPARE TO: Mummy wrapping of a Young Boy Roman Period CE Septimius Severus Late Empire 200 CE Arch of Septimius Severus Late Empire 203 CE Caracalla* Late Empire 300 CE COMPARE TO: Augustus of Primaporta Early Empire 20 CE Baths of Caracalla* Late Empire CE Plan of Baths of Caracalla CE Reconstruction Drawing of Baths of Caracalla CE Philip the Arab Late Empire CE Portrait of a Tetrarch (Galerius?) Late Empire early 4 th century CE The Tetrarchs** Late Empire 300 CE Points of rule during the Roman Tetrarchy CE Audience Hall of Constantine Chlorus* (Basilica) Late Empire 4 th century CE

8 City walls at Trier, Germany Late Empire 300 CE Porta Nigra at Trier, Germany Late Empire 300 CE Arch of Constantine* Late Empire July 25, 315 CE COMPARE TO: Arch of Titus Early Empire 81 CE Constantine The Great* Late Empire CE Basilica of Maxentius & Constantine (Basilica Nova) Late Empire CE Plan of Basilica of Maxentius & Constantine (Basilica Nova) Reconstruction Drawing of Basilica of Maxentius & Constantine (Basilica Nova) Platter Late Empire mid 4 th century CE Priestess of Bacchus(?)* Late Empire CE *Possibly a slide-identification question. Know the title and time period. **Know the title, time period and YEAR.

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