Antonine Art and Architecture. Dr. Doom

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1 Antonine Art and Architecture Dr. Doom

2 Today s Topics The Antonine Period Sculpture Architecture

3 3rd Extra Credit Opportunity Ancient Cypriot Limestone Sculpture and Self-Taught Sculptors in the Ancient World The island of Cyprus in antiquity is known for many things, among them an international reputation for concentrated religious activity, and quarries of soft limestone. These two features come together in the survival of tens of thousands sculptural offerings on the island: diverse in style and form, locally made and locally dedicated. This lecture will explore the unique experience of worship in ancient Cyprus with a particular focus on these dedications. I argue that the soft limestone was easily carved, so the sculptors required little training. By examining many works of limestone sculpture, we ll see the styles, techniques and themes of these artists reflect an environment similar to the selftaught artists working in more contemporary times..

4 The Emperor Antoninus Pius, AD Before dying Hadrian had made provisions for the continuity of Imperial rule. He chose his next three successors: (1) Antoninus Pius, ; (2) Lucius Verus ; and (3) Marcus Aurelius Lucius and Marcus were co-emperors, who ruled well together. Antoninus Pius

5 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

6 The Adoption panel from the Great Antonine Altar, Ephesus, ca. 169 This relief displays the importance of the triple adoption ((1) Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius and (2-3) Antoninus Pius adopted Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius) for ensuring imperial continuity. Antoninus Pius Hadrian Marcus Aurelius Faustina the Younger Lucius Verus

7 The Adoption panel from the Great Antonine Altar, Ephesus, ca. 169 This panel show the newly created Antonine family standing quietly facing the viewer directly. The style is Classicizing and the mood is subdued. The relief is more dynastic portrait group than narrative Antoninus Pius Hadrian Faustina Marcus the Aurelius Younger Lucius Verus

8 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

9 Antoninus Pius, ca The emperor wears a cuirass and a paludamentum. The sculptor delineated his eyes with a drill so he has pupils. How would you characterize his features?

10 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

11 Faustina the Elder, ca Faustina is depicted as a mature, yet ageless, woman with a perfect complexion and unlined face. The large eyelids make her eyes seem half closed and sleepy, a characteristic seen in some other Antonine portraits. The portrait projects what kind of image?

12 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

13 Marcus Aurelius as prince, ca. 140 in his portraits he ages gracefully from young prince to late 50 s mature man. He is a handsome young man with a mass of curly hair, heavy eyelids and an aloof sensuality. As in other Imperial portraits we see contrasting.

14 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

15 Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, ca. 175 the emperor possesses superhuman grandeur for two reasons..what are they? His outstretched hands signals both greeting and the granting of clemency which means what? What is Marcus wearing? What does that signify? The theme of this statue is then.?

16 Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, ca. 175 More than any other Roman portrait known today, this statue conveys the awesome power of the Roman emperor as the benevolent ruler of the world.

17 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

18 Lucius Verus, What is the co-emperor wearing? Symbolizes? The fact that he is depicted in a similar fashion to his elder co-emperor Marcus Aurelius conveys what message?

19 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

20 Cuirassed bust of Lucius Verus, Marengo, Italy, A very rare example of a bust done in a precious metal. It s visual impact outstrips any nonprecious metal material bust, but the limitations of the medium mean that it lacks some of the qualities of stone busts. What are they?

21 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

22 Commodus as Hercules, ca What imagery does this portrait incorporate? What does it symbolize overall?

23 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

24 Temple of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, AD 141 (161) Like Hadrian and Trajan, Antoninus is known as one of the good emperors. When his beloved wife Faustina pre-deceases him by 20 years in 141, she is deified and he builds her temple in the Roman Forum.

25 Temple of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, AD 141 (161) A good portion of the temple s superstructure is still standing. It was turned into the Church of S. Lorenzo in Miranda in the 7th or 8th centuries AD.

26 Temple of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, AD 141 (161) Is the best preserved example of a temple dedicated to a divine empress, as well as the best preserved example of a temple dedicated to a divine emperor.

27 Temple of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, AD 141 (161) Is the best preserved example of a temple dedicated to a divine empress, as well as the best preserved example of a temple dedicated to a divine emperor. Entablature w/carved frieze Cella wall Columns of its porch Partially reconstructed stairs High Podium

28 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

29 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

30 Column of Antoninus Pius, AD 161 was set up in the Campus Martius to commemorate the emperor and near the altar, which celebrated his deification. The column shaft of 50 feet of Egyptian granite was undecorated and has now completely disappeared. A bronze coin showing the divine emperor on one side and his column on the other.

31 Column of Antoninus Pius, AD 161 the only portion to survive is the column s richly sculpted base made of a single block of Italian marble. The base currently inhabits its own courtyard in the Vatican Museums.

32 The Column Base of Antoninus Pius, AD 161 the base is carved on 3 sides with reliefs, while on its fourth side there is the dedicatory inscription. The scene below is the most important, while the two other reliefs are of identical military reviews. military review military review

33 The Column Base of Antoninus Pius, AD 161 this side shows an apotheosis with the emperor and Sabina flying up to heaven on the back of a winged man accompanied by the eagles of Jupiter. Below them a personification of the Campus Martius holds the obelisk of Augustus horologium, while Roma presides over the over scene.

34 The Column Base of Antoninus Pius, AD 161 in the 2 identical military reviews a group of horsemen are riding in a circle around a group of infantrymen who stand on a narrow ledge representing the ground line. This is a real event, perhaps the ritual parade of the emperor s household calvary, which took place at his funeral.

35 The Column Base of Antoninus Pius, AD 161 combines an apotheosis scene with allegorical and divine Imperials carved in a cool, classical style, which recalls the Ara Pacis, the Apotheosis scene of Sabina and 5th BC Classical Athenian grave monuments. While the 2 military reviews feature short, stubby, toylike horses and men in an actual historical event.

36 Apotheosis scene of Sabina, ca. AD 136 Grave Stele of Hegeso Athens, ca. 400 BC for comparison purposes with the apotheosis scene from the Column Base of Antoninus Pius.

37 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

38 Marcus Aurelius granting clemency, ca from a lost arch of M. A. in Rome. an expanded narrative version of his equestrian statue. Here the emperor with extended arm offers clemency to two barbarians.

39 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

40 Marcus Aurelius sacrificing, ca from a lost arch of M. A. in Rome. M. A. performs the sacrifice/rites in honor of Jupiter after the successful conclusion of a military campaign The Senate

41 What is it? What is it made out of? Where is it? What s the date? Why is it significant?

42 Marcus Aurelius in his triumph, ca from a lost arch of M. A. in Rome. M. A. stands in his triumphal chariot. Someone is missing. Who is it and why? How does this image compare to the right-hand relief on the Arch of Titus? Taken together the reliefs from M. A. s lost arches symbolize what?

43 Marcus Aurelius in his triumph, ca The other reliefs show M. A. distributing largesse to the poor, as well as an adventus, profectio, and adlocutio, the emperor receiving barbarian suppliants and reviewing prisoners. Taken together the reliefs from M. A. s lost arches symbolize the omnipotent, benevolent, pius Roman emperor in his roles as supreme military, civic and religious leader. However

44 Marcus Aurelius in his triumph, ca M. A. in his portraits on these reliefs appears weary, saddened and even worried. For the first time, the strain of constant warfare on the frontiers and the burden of ruling a worldwide empire shows on the emperor s face.

45 See you on Thursday for a little more of Antonine Art and then Ostia, mirror of Rome

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