The Romans. Chapter 6 Etruscan and Roman Art AP Art History

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1 The Romans Chapter 6 Etruscan and Roman Art AP Art History

2 Instructional Objectives: Students will be able to examine the ways that Etruscan funerary art celebrates the vitality of human existence. Students will be able to trace the development of portraiture as a major form of artistic expression for the Romans. Students will be able to investigate the various ways Romans embellished the walls of their houses with illusionistic painting. Students will be able to explore the structural advances made by the Romans in the construction of large civic architecture. Students will be able to assess the ways Roman emperors used art and architecture as an arm of imperial propaganda.

3 Grading Rubric: For this lesson, you will be graded using the following rubric: Points Earned: Explanation: Student can clearly identify 3 ways that Republican portraiture changed, and 3 ways that Republican temples changed from earlier periods of Roman history. Student can clearly identify 2 ways that Republican portraiture changed, and 2 ways that Republican temples changed from earlier periods of Roman history. Student can clearly identify 1 way that Republican portraiture changed, and 1 way that Republican temples changed from earlier periods of Roman history. Student can identify ways that Republican portraiture and temple structure changed from earlier works; however, the answer is not complete or lacks supporting evidence. Student cannot identify way that Republican sculpture and temple structure changed from earlier periods of Roman history.

4 The Romans As Etruscan civilization was thriving, the Romans were developing into a formidable power. While Etruscan kings would rule for a period, by 509 BCE the Romans took complete control of the area. The Etruscans were absorbed into Roman territory. Rome continued to conquer many locations across the Mediterranean: the Italian Peninsula Carthage

5 At its greatest extent, Rome would control: The Euphrates River area Ring the Mediterranean Sea (mare nostrum) Gaul Portions of Asia English lands to Scotland Conquered peoples assimilated Roman legal systems, administration, and cultural structures. Rome left a LASTING impact on civilization emerging in Europe.

6 Roman Religion Roman religion does assimilate Greek gods, myths, beliefs, and practices. Worship practices would also include homage to past rulers. Romans would take oaths of allegiance to the present rulers. Romans also adopted mystery religions of the conquered peoples. Isis and Osiris from Egypt Cybele from Anatolia Mithras from Persia Monotheistic deity of Judaism Some emperors tried to suppress new rulers.

7 Roman Pantheon This building is literally the temple of ALL the gods. Constructed under the rule of Marcus Agrippa, in BCE. After a fire, Domitian replaced this with a new temple in 80 CE. Hadrian then replaced Domitian s temple with this one in CE.

8 The Roman Republic Early Roman Government Social status, political privilege, and fundamental values Self-sufficient farmers and large landowners Council of Elders heads of wealthy families were members of the Senate 7 kings of Rome from BCE = Some were Etruscans! 509 B.C. Romans overthrow the last Etruscan King. Romans then establish the Republic. Leaders are not kings. Certain citizens have the right to vote (sound familiar? Heard of Greece?) Republic lasted from BCE Not a modern republic votes of the wealthy count more than everyone else. Enemies surrounded the Republic: Continuous warfare begins! By 264 B.C. = Rome defeats: The other states of Latium The Greeks in the South The last Etruscan settlement Rome controls almost all of the Italian Peninsula!

9 The Roman Confederation: Latin peoples have full Roman citizenship. Other groups are allies and give soldiers to Rome: these people could earn citizenship. The Roman Senate Holds the real power of Rome Supposedly an advisory council As Rome progresses, the Senate will be chosen annually Members served for life and were from the prominent families Have wealth, influence, and political/military experience! Inequalities will lead to conflict Rome s success comes from 3 virtues: Duty Courage Discipline

10 Portrait Sculpture What were sculptors seeking to create in the Republic period? Lifelike images Used careful observations of subjects to create images Were the objectives related to any cultural factors? YES! Veneration of their ancestors Making/public display of death masks of deceased relatives Read pg. 170 Art and Its Context Republican portraiture was associated with the idea of verism an interest in the faithful reproduction of the subject! This means that we think Roman artists were trying to create an exact likeness!

11 Head of a Roman Patrician c BCE Portrait Head of an Elder c. 80 BCE

12 Aulus Metellus (Aule Metele) Is it Etruscan or Roman? What is this work? The Orator This is a life-size bronze portrait with the name inscribed on the hem of the garment. Lettering is Etruscan What is significant about this work? This sculpture depicts a man addressing people. The outstretched hand is a representation of rhetorical persuasiveness. Dressed as a Roman Senator!!! He is important Where would these statues be placed? Pliny the Elder noted they would be found atop columns (memorials)

13 Roman Architecture Who invented the round arch? Neither Etruscans and Romans invented the round arch! Both would use this device in MANY pieces of architecture. How is this element used? This element is both effective architecture AND elegant design. Why is this important? Round arches displace most of their weight along their curving sides. Weight travels down the vertical element of this piece (column, pier, door, or window jamb) How is the arch created? Brick or cut stones are formed into a curve and carefully fitted together. The wedge-shaped elements are called voussoirs.

14 The central element of an arch is called the keystone. Arches require added supports because of the additional weight buttressing is key in arches! Each piece of an arch is extremely important. Springings, piers, jambs, imposts, voussoirs, and keystones. Before the placement of the keystone, the arch is supported by a wooden scaffolding (centering).

15 Pont Du Gard, Nimes, France Constructed in the late 1 st Century BCE

16 Roman Temples How did architecture of the Roman Republic reflect both Etruscan and Greek elements? Romans constructed URBAN temples in commercial centers! Example: Temple, Perhaps dedicated to Portunus (6-16) How is this temple a DIRECT REFLECTION of Etruscan influence? How does this temple reveal adoption of Greek architectural orders? Where do we see engaged columns on this piece? What DIFFERENCES are shown in this piece? Through careful analysis, we note that the piece is Roman rather than Etruscan or Greek. Were temples constructed in other spaces? YES! Temples were also constructed in special sanctuaries!

17 How large is Rome by the 1 st Century BCE? Nearly ONE MILLION inhabitants in the city! The Roman Republic was essentially an OLIGARCHY in the hands of a Senate! Will this change? YES! Rome will transform into an EMPIRE under the rule of OCTAVIAN!

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