Essential Question: Voting Requirements in the Early 19c. Voter Turnout: Champion of the Common Man? King Andrew?

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1 Essential Question: Champion of the Common Man? OR King Andrew? Voting Requirements in the Early 19c Voter Turnout:

2 Why Increased Democratization? 3 White male suffrage increased 3 Party nominating committees. 3 Voters chose their state s s slate of Presidential electors. 3 Spoils system. 3 Rise of Third Parties. 3 Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats, etc.) 3 Two-party system returned in the 1832 election: Dem-Reps Natl. Reps.(1828) Whigs (1832) Republicans (1854) Democrats (1828) Father, brother and mother died during American revolution Jackson enlisted at 13, was captured and imprisoned at Battle of Hanging Rock. Had his face slashed by a British soldier for refusing to shine his boots Educated himself in law and held many elected offices including Tenn. representative to both US House and Senate Jackson s s First Hermitage Residence In 1798 he retired to build his farm and marry Rachel Robards Sold 7,000 acres and took the man s NOTE. The man declared bankruptcy, the note was no good, and he kept Jackson s land. Jackson went bankrupt, but paid off every cent. Jackson distrusted the eastern elite Jackson regrouped and soon had over 100 slaves Became American hero in War of 1812 In 1815 Jackson was named commander of the Army of the Southern District. Two years later he was ordered to lead an expedition against the Seminole people, who were raiding settlements in southern Georgia and then returning to the sanctuary of Spanish Florida. Jackson was instructed to end the raids by any necessary means. 2

3 In 1818 Jackson pursued the Seminole into Florida. He seized a military post at Saint Marks, and he executed two British subjects for inciting the Seminole against American settlers. Then, learning that the Seminole had fled toward Pensacola, Jackson made a forced march and captured the post a second time. Many members of Congress and several in the Cabinet of President James Monroe wished Jackson reprimanded and his action repudiated. Only Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, who was then negotiating with Spain for the purchase of Florida, defended Jackson. Jackson s Florida campaign increased his popularity, especially in the West, and it undoubtedly influenced Spain s decision to sell the territory. In 1819 Adams concluded the purchase of Florida, and in 1821 Monroe appointed Jackson governor of the newly organized Florida Territory. Jackson became involved in land speculation in 1817, putting his name and honor on several western land schemes During the Panic of 1819 most debtors could not re-pay him. He sued 129 debtors Jackson was very wealthy at this time, but still blamed the BUS for the Panic of He held a lifelong grudge against the B.U.S. that he saw as the cause. Led to suspicion of big government Jackson could play the Western frontiersman OR the East Coast businessman Jackson s hot temper involved him in a number of feuds and duels. Many of them were caused by remarks made about his marriage. The duel with Charles Dickinson in 1806 stands out as an example of Jackson s character. Jackson let his opponent fire first, because Dickinson was a faster and better shot. Allowing himself time to take deliberate aim, Jackson planned to kill his man with a single bullet, even if he had shot me through the brain. Thus, Jackson took a bullet in the chest and, without flinching, calmly killed his man. Jackson was also involved in a brawl with politician Thomas Hart Benton and his brother Jesse Benton. Jackson was shot twice in the shoulder and arm by Jesse and was seriously wounded. However, in later years, Jackson and Thomas Hart Benton became close political allies. America s 1 st Financial Panic 1819 The Panic of 1819 was the first major financial crisis in the United States. It featured widespread foreclosures, bank failures, unemployment, and a slump in agriculture and manufacturing. It marked the end of the economic expansion that had followed the War of

4 The US government borrowed heavily to finance the War of This caused tremendous strain on the banks reserves of specie, and led inevitably to a suspension of specie payments in This greatly spurred the establishment of new banks and the expansion of false bank notes. The newly issued bank notes misled investors into believing that the total supply of investment capital had increased. In response, a post-1812 boom began, fueled by rampant speculation in land, and also projects such as turnpikes and farm spending. However, since investment had not really increased, these investments were not sustainable. It soon became clear that the monetary situation was in bad shape, with a return to specie payments became increasingly hard. The Bank of the United States was forced to call a halt to its expansion and launch a painful process of contraction (demanding loans be paid). There was a wave of bankruptcies, and bank failures. Prices dropped and wide-scale urban unemployment began. The Panic of 1819 was caused partially by international events. European demand for American foodstuffs was reduced because the Napoleonic Wars had ended in War and revolution in the New World destroyed the supply line of precious metals (specie) from Mexico and Peru to Europe. Poor European governments began to hoard all the available specie. This caused American bankers and businessmen to start issuing more false banknotes and expanding credit. American bankers, who had little experience with the rules of banking, encouraged the speculated boom during the first years of the market revolution. Mini-panics had occurred in the market since the 1790s, but never to this magnitude. Businesses went bankrupt when they could not meet their debts, and hundreds of thousands of wage workers lost their jobs. For example unemployment reached 75 percent in the American city of Philadelphia, and 1,800 workers were imprisoned for debt. In Baltimore, the unemployed set up a city of tents on the outskirts of the city. The Common Man s Presidential Candidate 4

5 Jackson s s Opponents in 1824 Results of the 1824 Election Henry Clay [KY] John Quincy Adams [MA] John C. Calhoun [SC] A Corrupt Bargain? William H. Crawford [GA] Rachel Jackson Final Divorce Decree Jackson in Mourning for His Wife 1828 Election Results 5

6 The Center of Population in the Country Moves WEST The New Jackson Coalition 3 The Planter Elite in the South 3 People on the Frontier 3 State Politicians spoils system 3 Immigrants in the cities. Jackson s s Faith in the Common Man The Peggy Eaton Affair 3 Intense distrust of Eastern establishment, establishment, monopolies, & special privilege. 3 His heart & soul was with the plain folk. 3 Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements. The Webster-Hayne Debate Sen. Daniel Webster [MA] Sen. Robert Hayne [SC] 6

7 1830 Webster: Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable. Jackson: Our Federal Union it it must be preserved. Calhoun: The Union, next to our liberty, most dear Tariff Conflict > Tariff of Abomination > > new tariff 3 South Carolina s s reaction? 3 Jackson s s response? 3 Clay s Compromise Tariff? Indian Removal 3 Jackson s s Goal? Indian Removal Act 3 Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) * domestic dependent nation 3 Worcester v. GA (1832) 3 Jackson: John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it! Indian Removal 7

8 Jackson s s Professed Love for Native Americans Jackson s s Use of Federal Power The National Bank Debate VETO 1830 Maysville Road project in KY [state of his political rival, Henry Clay] Nicholas Biddle President Jackson Opposition to the 2 nd B.U.S. Soft (paper) $ 3 state bankers felt it restrained their banks from issuing bank notes freely. 3 supported rapid economic growth & speculation. Hard (specie) $ 3 felt that coin was the only safe currency. 3 didn t t like any bank that issued bank notes. 3 suspicious of expansion & speculation. 8

9 The Monster Is Destroyed! Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2 nd National Bank of the United States withdrew all Federal $ put $ in pet banks? the charter expired Another Panic, 1841 the B.U.S. expires An 1832 Cartoon: King Andrew? 1832 Election Results The Specie Circular (1936) Main Issue? 3 wildcat banks. 3 buy future federal land only with gold or silver. 3 Jackson s s goal? Results of the Specie Circular $ Banknotes loose their value. $ Land sales plummeted. $ Credit not available. $ Businesses began to fail. $ Unemployment rose. The Panic of 1837! Jackson or Jackson cuts funds to B.U.S. Jackson s specie Circular Jackson s Pet banks foreign problems? Great English wheat harvest Led to Eng. Investment in US stocks and cotton Rise in cotton prices Land boom overspeculation inflation. China wants opium not silver. Mex. Silver that had been sent to China now stays in US banks along with British silver. US owes Eng. Vast amounts of $ Hyper Inflation in US Eng calls in loans Cotton prices plummet, land prices plummet, deflation and Panic occur 9

10 Worthless Banknote cartoon The 1836 Election Results Martin Van Buren Old Kinderhook [O. K.] 10

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