Today s Topics. Review: The Market Revolution The 2 nd Great Awakening The Age of Jackson

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1 Today s Topics Review: The Market Revolution The 2 nd Great Awakening The Age of Jackson 1

2 Quiz Geography Slaves states 1820 Missouri Comprise Mississippi River Free States Texas 2

3 Population Distribution, 1790 and 1850 By 1850, high population density characterized parts of the Midwest as well as the Northeast Census of Population, Statistical Atlas, plates 2 and 3 8.

4 Canada , , ,174,442 MEXICO ,636, ,764, ,122, ,204, ,843, ,004, ,015, ,000, ,500, ,247,660 4

5 5

6 6

7 Map 9.2 The Market Revolution: Western Settlement, Give Me Liberty!: An American history, 3rd Edition Copyright 2011 W.W. Norton & Company 7

8 Roads and Steamboats The Erie Canal Map 9.1 The Market Revolution: Roads and Canals,

9 Railroads and the Telegraph 9

10 Map 9.2 The Market Revolution: Western Settlement, Give Me Liberty!: An American history, 3rd Edition Copyright 2011 W.W. Norton & Company 10

11 The Cotton Kingdom Map 9.4 The Market Revolution : the spread of cotton cultivation,

12 The Growth of Cities 12

13 Five Points District, artist unknown, c Five Points District, artist unknown, c Working-class neighborhoods like the infamous Five Points District in New York, shown in this anonymous 1829 picture, were filthy, unhealthy, and crime-ridden. 13 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

14 Industry Samuel Slater, first textile mill Boston Manufacturing Company, Lowell Mill Middlesex Company Woolen Mills, Lowell, Massachusetts, c. 1848, artist unknown (Museum of American Textile History) 14

15 The Factory System 15

16 The Mill Girls Women at work tending machines in the Lowell textile mills. A broadside from 1853, illustrating the long hours of work 16

17 17

18 1820s Nile s Weekly Register The American Republic invites nobody to come. We will keep out nobody. Arrivals will suffer no disadvantages as aliens. But they can expect no advantage either. Native-born and foreign-born face equal opportunities. What happens to them depends entirely on their individual ability and exertions, and on good fortune. John Quincy Adams A History of the American People 18

19 19

20 Immigration The Irish 1. Three waves of Irish immigration: 2. Enter work force at the bottom 3. Compete with blacks and native-born 20

21 Immigration The Germans 1. German immigrants represent diverse religions, classes, occupations 2. Cluster in German neighborhoods; build ethnic institutions 21

22 Anti-Catholicism, Nativism, and Labor Protest 1. Heavy Catholic immigration produces Protestant backlash; nativist, anti-catholic s, a nativist society, Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, becomes Know-Nothing Party, an important political party , anti-catholic "Bible Riots" in Philadelphia 4. native-born workers fear job competition from Catholic immigrant workers 22

23 The Rise and Fall of the Know- Nothings In the 1830s nativists attacked Catholic immigrants, asserting that America s republican values could not survive contact with a large, foreign-born Catholic population. These Protestants insisted that republicanism required a virtuous, educated, and free-spirited electorate, the opposite of how they portrayed Catholics: as superstitious, ignorant, and priest-ridden puppets. Anti-Catholicism had a long history in America, rooted in England s struggles against Catholic Spain and France and the Puritan journey across the ocean to escape the Church of England s Romish trappings. 23 Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical Society

24 The Growth of Immigration Irish and German Newcomers 24mins 24

25 2 nd Great Awakening 25

26 Second Great Awakening 1790s-1840 Begins in New England Camp Meetings & 1801 Kentucky Religious Camp Meeting, a watercolor from the late 1830s 26

27 Charles Finney & rejected predestination Anyone could achieve salvation Reached out to women 27

28 Burned-Over District New York 28

29 Mormonism Joseph Smith Book of Mormon Persecution Polygamy Brigham Young Mormon Trail to Utah Mormons 29

30 Today s Topics Age of Jackson

31 Age of Jackson Describe the political changes that occurred during the Age of Jackson. How did the concept of democracy change? How does Jackson s view of democracy differ from that of the Founding Fathers?

32 Hartford Convention 1814 Increase New England s power in the Union Talk of secession from the U.S. Backlash against the Federalist Party 32

33 Era of Good Feelings

34 Missouri Compromise and the State of the Union,

35 Missouri Compromise 1820 Henry Clay Missouri slave state Maine free state Prohibits slavery in Louisiana territory north of latitude 35

36 Missouri Compromise and the State of the Union, 1820 The compromise worked out by House Speaker Henry Clay established a formula that avoided debate over whether new states would allow or prohibit slavery. In the process, it divided the United States into northern and southern regions. 36

37 37

38 38

39 Monroe Doctrine 1823 John Quincy Adams U.S. pledged to stay out of European affairs. European nations will not interfere with independent nations in the western hemisphere. New European colonization in the western hemisphere prohibited Foundation of U.S. Foreign policy 39

40 Foreign Observers Alexis de Tocquervile 1835 Democracy in America Lorenzo de Zavala 1831 Journey to the United States of North America 40

41 Questions for discussion What are Tocqueville s main observations about life in America during the 1830s? Are these observations still relevant today? Why? Why not? 41

42 Andrew Jackson, by Ralph Earl Memphis Brooks Museum of Art, Memphis, TN, Memphis Park Commission Purchase 42

43 43

44 44

45 45

46 Jacksonian Democracy Old Hickory man of the people End of property qualifications for voting Democratization does not extend to women and African-Americans 46

47 Election of 1824

48 Election of 1828

49 The Election of 1828.

50 Andrew Jackson Rise of Jackson 50

51 1828 South Carolina Exposition and Protest Response to Tariff of Abomination Tariff violated Constitution States rights to nullify John C. Calhoun 51

52 Opposition to Jackson Whigs 52

53 53

54 American Progress 1872 The Removal of the Native Americans to the West,

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