Colonies Take Root

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1 Colonies Take Root

2 Essential Question: How did the English start colonies with distinct qualities in North America?

3 Formed by the Virginia Company in search of gold Many original settlers were killed by disease, starvation, or Indian attack The Starving Time most settlers didn t survive

4 Natural leader Took charge in 1608 No Work, No Food Traded with the Native Americans in the area

5 John Rolfe discovers the crop that saves the colony Tobacco cash crop that Europe will pay $$$ for

6 First representative government in the colonies Voters elect representatives to make decisions and laws for them Set taxes and made laws for the people Shared power with the appointed governor who had veto power

7 Separatists left England seeking religious freedom moved to Holland They took the Virginia Company up on their offer to move to Virginia to practice their own religion Their ship, Mayflower, was blown off course and they landed in present-day Massachusetts

8 Since they were so far north of Virginia, they felt they needed their own laws Created a government that would make and follow just and equal laws First document in which American colonists claimed a right to govern themselves Signed by 41 adult males

9 During their first winter, half of the colonists died from starvation A native chief gave the Pilgrims food to survive Squanto taught the colonists how to grow their own food, corn, beans, pumpkins The Pilgrims set aside a day in the fall of 1621 to give thanks

10 Geography: Good Thick forests Miles of freshwater rivers & coastline rich with fish Long, cold winters Bad Hilly rocky land with thin soil Long, cold winters How do they survive? Fishing, shipbuilding, small family farms

11 People that wanted to reform or purify the Church of England

12 Puritan leader Said that everyone must work together for success

13 Between 1630 and 1640 more than 20,000 settlers crossed the Atlantic Ocean

14 Puritans founded the city of Boston in Massachusetts Bay Colony

15 Hard Work

16 Education

17 Representative Government

18 Spoke out for 3 major changes No one should be forced to attend a church There should be a separation of church and state Native Americans should be paid for their land

19 Roger Williams was banished for his beliefs He left and started the Rhode Island colony

20 Anne Hutchinson Banished for disagreeing with the Puritan leaders Left Massachusetts and founded a settlement in Rhode Island

21 Thomas Hooker disagreed with Puritan leaders Left on his own with 100 settlers and founded the new colony

22 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Created a new government Expanded voting rights Elected legislature and governor Power rests with the people

23 John Wheelwright Agreed with Anne Hutchinson Thrown out of Massachusetts Settlers eventually granted a charter by the crown

24 TRAITS OF NEW ENGLAND SETTLERS Highly skilled and educated Middle level of society Most were very religious cache.boston.com/bonzai-fba/globe_photo/2006/...

25 King Philips s War 1675 Metacom : Wampanoag chief King Philip Organized Native Americans to push back against English settlers War lasted 1 year and thousands were killed Ended when Metacom was captured and killed English colonies free to expand 4.bp.blogspot.com/_4HdwwI3Z_mM/SSuGG08HIoI/AA

26 Geography Temperate climate Fertile soil Long coastline Many rivers How do they survive? Farming (wheat is cash crop) Manufacturing iron, flour, paper Major trade centers (New York, Philadelphia) tradesmen and artisans

27 1664 James, Duke of York conquers New Amsterdam New York City major trading center

28 Split off from southern New York Becomes royal colony in 1702 farming

29 William Penn Holy Experiment 1682 Freedom of religion for all

30 Quakers All people are equal in God s eyes Women are equal in the Church Suffered persecution for their beliefs

31 1704 Separates from Pennsylvania too far to Philadelphia Self-rule

32 Traits of Middle Colonies Small family farms Artisans and tradesmen Coopers, blacksmiths, weavers, etc Manufacturing centers Large cities (New York, Philadelphia Diverse population Most non-english colonists Ireland, Scotland, German, Dutch

33 Geography Warm climate Flat lowlands Swamps Rolling hills How do they survive? Farming On the coast Plantations Rice, tobacco slavery Back country Small farms poor

34 Maryland George Calvert Lord Baltimore Granted charter in 1632 Religious tolerance for Catholics Toleration Act All accepted When Protestants outnumber Catholics in the government, Toleration Act is revoked

35 Continues to expand through the 17 th century Problems with the Native Americans Governor makes a deal with Native Americans that won t allow colonists to move west First sign that colonists will keep pushing Native Americans off their land Bacon s Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon organizes other farmers to attack and kill Native Americans Governor calls the men rebels They turn and attack Jamestown and burn it to the ground Bacon tries to take over, but he gets sick and dies Governor regains control

36 1663 New charter granted establishing the colony of Carolina Eventually splits into 2 colonies North Develops slowly Small farms Not many harbors or rivers

37 South Rapid expansion Tidewater region Swampy lowlands Rice major crop Many slaves needed Wealthy plantation owners Charleston largest city in the South

38 James Oglethorpe Started colony named after King George Settlers who had great debt and wanted a fresh start

39 Region: a distinct, or unique, area of land that shares common characteristics

40

41 Florida St. Augustine 1 st permanent European settlement in North America Spanish created presidios military bases Pueblos - towns Mission System Helped colonize Southwest Catholic priests educated and converted Native Americans Natives farmed, built churches learned crafts

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