Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Class Notes

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1 Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Class Notes The Lost Colony of Roanoke - England wanted colonies in North America because they hoped America was rich in gold or other resources. - Establish a colony is very difficult and dangerous because Spain didn t want other nations building colonies in the Americas. - Walter Raleigh offered to organize the first colony. - Raleigh s men had a difficult time because of the winter and finding food. - John White led another group of 100 men & women to Roanoke Island. - Supplies ran out and White returned to England while they were at war with Spain. - England couldn t send any ships back to Roanoke until 1590 because they were at war. - When White returned to Roanoke everybody was gone and the only evidence that he found was the word Croatoan carved into a tree. - People were either captured by Spain, killed, or joined the Croatoan Indians. The Battle of the Spanish Armada - England s attempt to build a colony in North America angered Spain s King Philip II. - English sea captains had been raiding the Spanish ships of gold. - Francis Drake was known as the Master Thief because of all the gold he stole.

2 King Philip decided to attack England. - He assembled the Spanish Armada (130 Ships and 30,000 soldiers). - English ships had several advantages such as smaller and faster ships and they had more powerful guns. - Spain only had 60 ships return after the war. - This war made England one of the most powerful nations. The Jamestown Colony a group of merchants formed the Virginia Company of London. - King James I granted this group of people a charter to set up a colony. - They raised money by selling stock of their company to people promising them money if they make a profit. - James River was named in honor of King James I. - They were looking for a spot that was easy to defend and they chose to unload their ships on a peninsula in the river and they called it Jamestown. - John Smith called Jamestown a very fit place for erecting a great city and he was wrong. - The air was full of mosquitoes, the river was not healthy water to drink and it started to make people sick and start to die. John Smith and the Starving Time - Jamestown colonist had expected to find gold and they didn t find any.

3 - They were running out of food and only had a little wheat that was left from the voyage of England. - Under Smith s leadership they began to build houses and dig wells for water. - They also began to trade corn with Chief Powhatan. - Smith says that he was taken prisoner when he met with Chief Powhatan. - Without Smith people started the starving time. Tobacco Helps Jamestown Grow - Tobacco was beginning to be a cash crop. - King James didn t approve tobacco but it continued to grow in England. - Indentured servants were arriving by thousands in Jamestown. - Servants thought that they would be able to buy their own land.

4 Chapter 5 Lesson 2 French and Dutch Settlements - Samuel de Champlain was on an expedition that explored Canada looking for the Northwest Passage. - The Northwest Passage would connect Europe to Asia and make it easier for trading. - The Northwest Passage was never found because it didn t exist. - The search for the Passage did lead to founding of new European colonies in North America Champlain founded the colony of Quebec. - The area was loaded with beavers and the fur could be sold for huge profits. - The French started a colony Montreal. - Hudson was also looking for the Northwest Passage on a wide river and in honor they name the river the Hudson River. - The Dutch colonies became known as New Netherlands. - The Dutch built a colony New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island so they can control the trade on the Hudson River. - This deal made the Dutch the most important and biggest settlement. New Amsterdam Grows - The Dutch was encouraging other people from many countries to settle in New Netherlands.

5 - There were people living there of many different backgrounds. - The area eventually became a city and is the largest in the United States. Chapter 5 Lesson 3 Notes The Pilgrims - Pilgrims began in the 1500s. - England broke away from the Roman Catholic Church. - King Henry VIII created Church of England.

6 - Everybody had to belong to this church that lived in England. - Church of England was too much like the Roman Catholic Church. - Separatists faced persecution. - Bradford decided to leave England and start a settlement of their own where they could worship as they pleased. - They started the settlement in Plymouth The Mayflower - In November of Pilgrims went sailing across the Atlantic Ocean to live in Virginia. - The ship was pushed off of course and ended up in Cape Cod. - They settled in an area called Plymouth. - The leaders wrote the Mayflower Compact. The government would make just and equal laws for the general good of the colony. - The first 3 months the Pilgrims lost half of their men due to the winter. A Thanksgiving Celebration - Squanto helped the Pilgrims make a peace treaty with Massasoit the leader of Wampanoag. - Squanto showed the Pilgrims the best hunting and fishing spots and he showed them how to grow corn. - That fall their crops were doing well and they decided to have a celebration of thanksgiving with Wampanoag.

7 The Puritans Arrive - In 1630 The Puritans began to search for religious freedom. - Their leader was John Winthrop. - They arrived in New England and called their colony the Massachusetts Bay Colony. - There main settlement was located in Boston. The Puritans Way of Life - They all had their own land to build a home and farm. - There was a meetinghouse where they had religious ceremonies. - They believed in education and they wanted children to learn how to read they built the first public school. Chapter 5 Lesson 4 Notes Geography of the 13 Colonies - 13 Colonies lay between the Atlantic Ocean and Appalachian Mountains. - The colonies are divided into three regions New England Colonies, Middle Colonies, and the Southern Colonies. New England Colonies Had thin and rocky soil. Woods provided a great supply of lumber. Coastal waters were rich in fish and whales. Middle Colonies Better for farming. More fertile soil and warmer climates.

8 Southern Colonies Longest growing season. Rich soil produced valuable crops such as tobacco and rice. New England Colonies - Roger Williams was a minister in Salem Massachusetts who believed the government should not punish citizens for not going to church. - This belief got him kicked out of Massachusetts. - He then traveled south and finding Providence Rhode Island. - Rhode Island was the first colony to offer complete religious freedom. - Anne Hutchinson was also forced out of Mass. Because she held religious discussions in her home in Boston. - Thomas Hooker founded the colony of Connecticut. These settlers were hoping for religious and political freedom. The Middle Colonies - 5,000 European settlers were living in the Dutch colony of New Netherland. - England s King Charles II wanted to take over New Amsterdam. - His brother James, the Duke of York was given the task to take over New Amsterdam. - Stuyvesant saw that he could not defend the settlement and they were captured without firing a shot. - New Netheland name was changed to New York.

9 - The Duke gave part of New York to his friends George Carteret and John Berkeley. They started the colony of New Jersey. - King Charles II gave a huge section of land to William Penn. - This was repayment to Penn s father. - Penn was a Quaker, who opposed war, and believed that people could worship god without going to church or following religious leaders. - Penn named his new colony Pennsylvania, meaning Penn s Woods. - The main settlement was between the Schuylkill and Delaware River s and was named Philadelphia. This was known as the city of brotherly love. The Southern Colonies - King Charles I gave a large section of land to a catholic Lord Baltimore. - He named the colony Maryland. - Maryland was controlled by a proprietary and was a safe place for Catholics and Protestants. - Carolina happened in 1663 and was later separated into two colonies North and South Carolina. - James Oglethorpe helped found the last of the colonies. Oglethorpe saw that English jails were crowded with debtors. His plan was to give debtors a second chance by giving them new lives on their own land. King George II gave Oglethorpe a charter to land south of the colonies and he named it Georgia

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