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1 Unit 5: Age of Jackson,

2 Democracy and the Common Man Alexis de Tocqueville (French writer and visitor to the US) and others from Europe were amazed by the informal manners, democratic attitudes, and equality they witnessed in America

3 Godey s Lady s Book Vogue of it s time for all ladies to copy latest styles More equality, except Who s left out? Self-made man was the hero of the age

4 Expansion of Suffrage no longer just the wealthy elite involved in politics more lower and middle class voters than ever before Universal male suffrage Party nominating conventions Popular election of the president electors chosen by voters rather than legislature

5 Rise of Third- Parties More elected offices Popular campaigning Two-Party System national scale

6 Rotation of office Spoils Spoils system rewarding party loyalty with government jobs Rotation Rotation in office pros and cons? Both Both of the above affirmed the democratic ideal that one man was as good as another

7 Revolution of 1828 Jackson elected after the Corrupt Bargain and election of John Quincy Adams in 1824 Campaigns both included MUDSLINGING and personal attacks on candidates and their wives Due to the awkward circumstances surrounding their marriage, unfortunately some elements of the story of Rachel and Andrew's marriage were true according to the law. Rachel and Andrew were living as husband and wife for two years before they found out that her first husband had actually never completed the divorce. Meanwhile, Jackson supporters were by no means innocent. Adams was accused of installing gambling tables in the White House at the public expense, of padding his expense account, and even of pimping women for the Tsar of Russia

8 THREE TIMES the number of voters than last election

9 Second Party System 1. Democratic Party favored local rule, limited government, free trade, equal opportunities (White males) -opposed monopolies, national bank, high tariffs, and high land prices Supported by southerners, westerners, small farmers, urban workers Jackson s Party

10 2. Whig Party (Anti-Jackson) favored Clay s American System, national bank, federal funding for internal improvements, protective tariff Opposed immorality, crime, blamed immigrants Supported by New Englanders, mid-atlantic, upper Middle-West, Protestants, middle class urban professionals

11 Presidency of Andrew Jackson Common man? extraordinary ordinary man self-made man Kitchen Cabinet Peggy Eaton Affair More vetoes than all previous presidents Internal improvements and states rights: The Maysville Road veto Jackson vetoed rival Clay s plan because it was wholly within one state (Kentucky)

12

13 Indian Removal Act (1830) Jackson convinces best solution for land-hungry citizens Native Americans would move west of the Mississippi with help of Bureau of Indian Affairs to Oklahoma territory

14 Worcester v. Georgia (1832) laws of Georgia had no force within the boundaries of Cherokee territories Jackson sided with the states John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it Trail of Tears 15,000 Cherokees forced to leave, 4,000 died on journey Other Native groups included: Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole

15 The Nullification Crisis right of states to declare a federal law null and void Webster-Hayne Debates (1830) 1. Tariff issue Calhoun s South Carolina did not want to collect, Jackson and Congress passed Force Bill take military action if necessary compromise lower tariff and nullification postponed 2. The Union: Calhoun and Jackson Jackson favored federal authority regarding nullification, but also supported Southern slavery by stopping anti-slavery literature distributions in US mail

16 The Bank War: Jackson and Biddle Biddle managed bank effectively, but some felt he catered to the wealthy Jackson vetoed bank believed it was unconstitutional, hydra of corruption, expense of common people Won re-election election over Clay partly due to issue, ¾ of electoral vote

17 Martin Van Buren VP to Jackson Panic of 1837 partly due to veto of BUS and pet banks Democrats and Van Buren blamed

18 Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign of 1840 Tippecanoe and Tyler Too Whig s candidate William Henry Harrison, popular war hero Campaigning log cabins rolling down streets, free drinks, buttons, name-calling Martin Van Ruin 78% of eligible voters turned out Fate of Harrison?

19 Creating and American Culture A. Cultural Nationalism new enthusiasm for reform B. Education reform/ professionalism 1. Horace Mann led tax-supported public school movement, compulsory attendance, longer school year, teacher training 2. Moral education McGuffey readers, hard work, punctual, sober Higher education result of 2 nd Great Awakening, Mt. Holyoke and Oberlin admitted women

20

21 Religion; revivalism 1. Second Great Awakening 1820s - 40s 2. Burned Over District and Western New York/ Charles G. Finney 3. Baptists and Methodists in South Peter Cartwright led outdoor revivals, camp meetings

22 Utopian experiments 1. Mormons founded by Joseph Smith Book of Mormon connection between lost tribes of Israel and Native Americans Smith gained followers and moved west, murdered in Illinois Brigham Young led Mormons to Salt Lake City, Utah establish prosperous, cooperative religious community Polygamy

23 Oneida Community founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 cooperative living Committed to perfect social and economic equality, free-love Shared property and marriage partners Planned reproduction, communal child rearing, economic success

24 Shakers Founded by Mother Ann Lee believed to be female embodiment of Christ Communal living Separation of the Sexes Opportunities for women

25 Transcendentalists Challenged materialism of American society Individualism, emotion, and nature Ralph Waldo Emerson self reliance, independent thinking Henry David Thoreau Essay on Civil Disobedience and Walden Brook Farm communal, combine manual labor and intellectuals

26 National literature, art, and architecture Painting - Hudson River School expressed romantic age s fascination with the natural world Architecture Greek styles, democratic spirit Literature American writers and American themes Cooper s Leather- stocking Tales and Last of the Mohicans, Hawthorne s Scarlet Letter, and Melville s Moby Dick

27 Reform Crusades - 1. Feminism; roles of women in the 19 th century Cult of Domesticity Stemmed from women s involvement in anti-slavery movement Grimke Sisters Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton Seneca Falls Convention (1848) Declaration of Sentiments modeled after? Did not yet speak of equal pay for equal work

28 Abolitionism American Colonization Society (1817) Back to Africa Liberia American Anti-Slavery Slavery Society (1831) William Lloyd Garrison immediate emancipation, burned Constitution Black Abolitionists Frederick Douglass and his North Star, Sojourner Truth Violent Abolitionists David Walker, Nat Turner

29 Temperance Used moral arguments to protest excessive drinking and alcohol One of first reform movements women got involved in American Temperance Society by 1840s million members Women s Christian Temperance Union Supported by factory owners Opposed by German and Irish immigrants

30 Criminals and insane Mental Hospitals and Dorothea Dix Schools for Blind and Deaf Prisons solitary confinement for reflection of sins, structure and discipline for moral reform, work programs

31 Essay Questions 1. Analyze the extent to which TWO of the following influenced the development of democracy between 1820 and 1840 Jacksonian economic policy Changes in electoral politics Second Great Awakening Westward Movement

32 Essay Question The Jacksonian Period ( ) has been celebrated as the era of the common man. To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? Consider TWO of the following in your response. Economic Development Politics Reform Movements

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