3 Expansion of Democracy Broadening of suffrage Nominating conventions Election of 1828 Formation of Democratic Party Jackson & Calhoun elected Jackson s Inauguration Jackson used the spoils system for appointments Martin Van Buren Secretary of State Kitchen Cabinet advised Jackson
4 The Big Idea The expansion of voting rights and the election of Andrew Jackson signaled the growing power of the American people. Main Ideas Democracy expanded in the 1820s as more Americans held the right to vote. Jackson s victory in the election of 1828 marked a change in American politics.
5 America changed fast in the early 1800s. Large factories replaced workshops in the North. Family farms gave way to cotton plantations in the South. Wealth was concentrated among fewer people Many ordinary Americans believed the wealthy were gaining more power in the United States.
6 Democracy spread in the early 1800s as more people became active in politics. Democratic reform made voting reform possible. Many states lowered or eliminated the property ownership requirement for men to be eligible to vote
7 Political parties held nominating conventions, which allowed party members, not just leaders, to select candidates. The Period of expanding Democracy in the 1820s & 1830s was called Jacksonian Democracy Small farmers, frontier settlers and slaveholders backed Andrew Johnson in the election of 1828 They believed he would defend the rights of the common people and slave states
8 Jackson vs. Adams Democratic Party arose from Jackson s supporters. Backers of President John Quincy Adams were called National Republicans. Jackson chose John C. Calhoun as running mate
9 Jackson portrayed as war hero who was born poor and worked to succeed. Adams was Harvard graduate and son of the second president. Jackson defeated Adams, winning a record number of popular votes.
10 Attended school until the age of 16 Started surveying land for the British government at 16 Was made a lieutenant colonel at 22 Came from a moderately wealthy family
11 Came from a well established family Father was a farmer and shoemaker Mother came from upper class of Boston Society Attended Harvard at the age of 16 Studied law
12 Born into wealth Father was a cartographer and surveyor Mother was descendant of European royalty Inherited 5,000 acres of land Attended the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, VA. at the age 16
13 Parents were wealthy tobacco plantation owners Attended Princeton at the age of 18 Finished college in 2 years
14 Came from wealthy farming family Attended prestigious prep schools as a child Attended the College of William and Mary Inherited the family farm at 16 Fought in the Continental Army Studied law
15 Father was President John Adams At the age of 15, Washington appointed him Secretary to the Mission in Russia Attended Harvard University Studied law
16 Never met his father his father died unexpectedly at the age of 29 just before his wife gave birth (named for his father) His mother worked as a housekeeper for relatives Poor education poor reading and writing skills Hot temper would attack verbally/physically at the drop of a hat British Prisoner during American Revolution at 13 Brother and mother died of illness after being held prisoner
17 Jackson s Inauguration Spoils System Supporters saw Jackson s victory as win for common people. Jackson rewarded political backers with government jobs, called spoils system, from to the victor belong the spoils... most not qualified for position Martin Van Buren Kitchen Cabinet One of Jackson s closest advisors and member of his Kitchen Cabinet. Jackson relied on an informal group of trusted advisers who met sometimes in White House kitchen.
18 Key Terms & People: States Rights Doctrine since states formed the National Government, state power should be greater than federal power Nullification Crisis conflict between states rights & federal rights proponents Daniel Webster MA Senator supported federal over states rights McCulloch v. Maryland ruled that federal bank was constitutional Whig Party favored weak president & strong Congress Panic of 1837 severe economic depression caused by Jackson s economic policies William Henry Harrison Whig who won the 1840 election (Tippicanoe & Tyler too)
19 Sectionalism increases US has 3 distinct regions Tariff of Abominations States Rights Debate Nullification Crisis Hayne-Webster Debate Jackson responds to crisis Jackson Attacks the Banks McCulloch v. Maryland Refuses to sign charter renewal Panic of 1837 Van Buren Blamed Election of 1840
20 The Big Idea Andrew Jackson s presidency was marked by political conflicts. Main Ideas Regional differences grew during Jackson s presidency. The rights of the states were debated in arguments about a national tariff. Jackson s attack on the Bank sparked controversy. Jackson s policies led to the Panic of 1837.
21 North Economy based on manufacturing Support for tariffs American goods could be sold at lower prices than British goods South Economy based on agriculture Opposition to tariffs increased the cost of imported goods West Emerging economy Support for internal improvements and the sale of public lands
22 In 1827, northern manufacturers had demanded a tariff on imported wool goods. Would provide protection against foreign competition. Southerners opposed a tariff because it would hurt their economy. Congress passed a high tariff on imports before Jackson became president. The South called it Tariff of Abominations.
23 The rights of the states were debated amid arguments about a national tariff Jackson was forced to deal with growing conflicts over tariffs. The question of an individual state s right to disregard a law passed by Congress was at the heart of a growing conflict over tariffs.
24 Vice Pres. John C. Calhoun supported the South Advanced states rights doctrine States power greater than federal power because states had formed national government States could nullify, or reject, law judged unconstitutional Vice President Calhoun said Congress should not favor one state or region over another. Calhoun s theory was controversial. Produced the nullification crisis
25 Daniel Webster debated Robert Y. Hayne in Senate on nullification. Webster argued that the United States was one nation, not a pact among independent states. Jackson urged Congress to pass lower tariff rate in Jackson opposed nullification, but was worried about the southern economy.
26 South Carolina enacted Nullification Act which declared the tariffs void. threatened to withdraw from the Union voted to form their own army. Henry Clay proposed a compromise to lower the tariff slowly over several years. Congress and South Carolina quickly approved the compromise. States rights controversy continued until Civil War.
27 Jackson did not always support federal power. Opposed the Bank of the United States. It s 20-year charter was up for renewal. Believed it unconstitutional only states should have banking power.
28 The bank did the following: Held federal deposits Made transfers of federal funds between states Dealt with payments involving the government Issued paper currency 80% of the bank was privately owned, but it was supervised by Congress or the president. Many states in the South and Jackson opposed the bank. Southerners believed the bank helped the wealthy business people
29 In McCulloch v. Maryland, Supreme Court ruled the national bank was constitutional. McCulloch was a cashier at the Bank s branch in Maryland who refused to pay the tax that was designed to limit the Bank s operations. Jackson vetoed the renewal of the Bank s charter in Congress could not get enough votes to override the veto.
31 Jackson chose not to run again in 1836 Vice President Martin Van Buren was nominated. Van Buren defeated four candidates nominated by the new Whig Party A severe economic depression called the Panic of 1837 followed the election.
32 Jackson s policies led to the Panic of 1837 Jackson took funds out of the Bank and put them in state banks. State banks used funds to give credit to land buyers. Helped land expansion but caused inflation. Jackson tried to slow inflation. Ordered Americans to use only gold and silver to buy land. Still did not help the national economy. Jackson s banking and inflation policies opened the door for economic troubles.
33 People blamed Van Buren even though Jackson s economic policies had contributed to the panic. Van Buren was defeated in 1840 by Whig candidate William Henry Harrison. Tippicanoe & Tyler too. Harrison died of pnuemonia 1 month after taking office making John Tyler PoTUS
34 Key Terms & People: Indian Removal Act 1830 Authorized moving all Native American East of the Mississippi to lands in the West Indian Territory Land that Native Americans were to occupy (OK) Bureau of Indian Affairs government agency in charge of moving Indians Sequyoa Cherokee who created the Cherokee alphabet Worcester v. Georgia court ruled in favor of Cherokees, only federal government had authority over Native Americans Trail of Tears forced 800 mile march of Cherokees from Georgia to Indian Territory in Oklahoma
35 Indian Removal Act Indian territory Bureau of Indian Affairs Choctaw, Creek, & Chickasaw removal Cherokee Resistance Sequoya Worcester v. Georgia Trail of Tears Other Native Americans Resistance Black Hawk Fox & Sauk Chief Osceola Seminole Chief
36 The Big Idea President Jackson supported a policy of Indian removal. Main Ideas The Indian Removal Act authorized the relocation of Native Americans to the West. Cherokee resistance to removal led to a disagreement between Jackson and the Supreme Court. Other Native Americans resisted removal with force.
38 Native Americans had long lived in settlements stretching from Georgia to Mississippi. Jackson and other political leaders wanted to open land to settlement by American farmers.
39 Congress: passed the Indian Removal Act in The act authorized the removal of Native Americans living east of Mississippi to lands in the West. established the Indian Territory. Native Americans would be moved to land in present-day Oklahoma. created the Bureau of Indian Affairs to manage removal.
40 "Thus the first Indians began their removal as early as October, 1830, although the main removal was to occur during the years 1831, 32, and 33. It was a 350 mile journey. Most of the territory covered was wild and unsettled. It was not uncommon for the emigrants to walk half a day through waist high water in a swamp. Little has been documented about this transfer of human beings from one domain to another. It was properly known as the Trail of Tears. Death followed every step. When they arrived at their destination, few of their elders had survived the trip. They were a bewildered, dirty, bedraggled and ill group when they arrived." - Chief David Gardner
41 First to be sent to Indian Territory. 7.5 million acres of their land taken by Mississippi. Federal aid that was promised the Choctaw never arrived. One-fourth died on the way.
42 resisted removal, were captured, put in chains and led to the Indian Territory
43 Negotiated treaty for better supplies, but many died.
44 Cherokees adopted white culture, had own government and a writing system developed by Sequoya They set up schools where their children could learn how to read and write English Had an election system & court system They published a newspaper printed in both English and Cherokee
46 After gold was found on their land, their rights were ignored and they were forced to move They refused to move and the Georgia militia began attacking Cherokee towns The Cherokee sued the state of Georgia
47 Supreme Court ruled in the Cherokees favor in Worcester v. Georgia President Jackson sided with Georgia and took no action to enforce the ruling. violated his presidential oath to uphold the laws of the land. Cherokee resistance to removal led to disagreement between Jackson and the Supreme Court. John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it. -Andrew Jackson
48 In 1838, U.S. troops forced Cherokees on 800-mile march to Indian Territory. Onefourth of 18,000 Cherokees died.
49 Chief Black Hawk of the Fox and Sauk fought rather than leave Illinois. He was eventually forced to leave, after running out of food and supplies. Osceola led his followers in the Second Seminole War in Florida. Hundreds of Seminoles, including Osceola were killed, and some 4,000 Seminoles were removed Small groups of Seminole resisted removal, and their descendants live in Florida today.
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