Chapter 14 ANDREW JACKSON: PRESIDENT

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1 Chapter 14 ANDREW JACKSON: PRESIDENT

2 The presidential campaign of 1828 = One of the dirtiest in U.S. history Two candidates John Quincy Adams, running for reelection Andrew Jackson, popular hero of the War of 1812 s Battle of New Orleans Winner Introduction

3 Jackson s Background Known as Old Hickory Tough as the hardest wood in all creation Born in S. Carolina to poverty Family Father died when he was young Brothers died during American Revolution Mom died shortly after war Frontier lawyer known as roaring, rollicking, gamecocking, horse-racing, cardplaying, mischievous fellow Jackson = Self-made man Rose from poverty to become president of the United States

4 People s Choice Supporters = General population (not rich and upper class) First time voters Farmers, frontier settlers 1828 Democratic Party Represent ordinary people (farmers, workers, and poor) Supporters celebrated his election as a victory for the common man over the rich and powerful Jacksonian Democracy Common people should control their own government Did not believe in backing down

5 Inauguration 10,000+ crowded into Washington DC to witness Jackson s inauguration Supporters packed the White House and destroyed the place in celebration Right to vote had been limited to upper class and wealthy Election of 1828 had three times as many voters as 1824 Jackson promised to throw rich out and return government to the people

6 Jackson s Approach to Governing Trusted friends = Advisors Usually met in White House kitchen ( kitchen cabinet ) Jackson removed Republican office holders ( civil servants ) and replaced with Democrats Opposition called this The Spoils System Rewarding political supporters with government jobs Reality = Only 10% actually replaced

7 Nullification Crisis Congress raised tariffs Tariff = Taxes on imported goods Supposed to encourage growth of manufacturing High tariffs = High prices and high profits North = YES Pro-factory, manufacturing Industrial South = NO Agriculture Taxes hurt agriculture Raised prices for manufactured goods they bought from the north Developing tensions between North and South

8 Nullification Crisis S. Carolina threatened secession (leave union) States right to secede when government overreaches its power Jackson - If one drop of blood be shed there in defiance of the laws of the United States, I will hang the first man of them I can get my hands on to the first tree I can find. Forces Tariff Laws Army will collect tariffs if needed Congress lowered tariffs S. Carolina backed down and nullification ended

9 Jackson Battles Bank of US Jackson saw himself as the champion of the people Especially in his war with the Bank of the United States Jackson thought that the national bank benefited rich eastern depositors at the expense of farmers, workers, and smaller state banks

10 Jackson Battles Bank of US Bank s charter, or contract, was due to for renewal in 1836 Jackson vetoed bill re-charter Even though the Supreme Court said the bank was constitutional Jackson called the bank an unconstitutional monopoly that existed to make the rich richer Voters agreed 1832 Large majority reelected Jackson to second term Jackson removed funds from National Bank to state banks to starve it to death

11 Jackson s Indian Policy Jackson had little sympathy for Native Americans Jackson s Indian Policy was simple Move the eastern tribes across the Mississippi to make room for white people U.S. started offering NA treaties Government promised food, supplies, and $ for land Intention = Negotiate with NA to have them assimilate to white culture If not, NA should leave so the white people could expand the farmland Despite U.S. treaties, Native Americans continued to be pushed off their land Most of the eastern NA lived in the South = Five civilized tribes Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole What does this political cartoon suggest about how Jackson was viewed?

12 Indian Removal Act 1830 Urged by Jackson, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act Did not say that the NA should be removed by force Intention = Peaceful negotiation and assimilation to white culture 1831 Supreme Court said NA had a right to keep their lands Jackson disagreed and provided federal troops to remove tribes Groups refusing to move west voluntarily met with military force, usually with tragic results 1836 Thousands of Creek in AL forced to march west Trail of Tears 17,000 Cherokees forced west from GA FL Seminole tribe resisted for 10 years but were finally forced out

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