1 Chapter 12 Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath, "It is not sufficient that I may succeed-all others must fail." Genghis Khan AP World History
2 I. The Rise of the Mongols, A. Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia Pastoral Mongols were strongly hierarchical. Mongols had complex federations tied to together by marriage alliances. Their seasonal movements brought them into contact with all types of religions. They accepted religious pluralism. Mongol khans were thought to represent the Sky God. Mongol empire Largest land empire ever created (from Korea to Poland)
4 Mongol empire Largest land empire ever created (from Korea to Poland)
5 Mongol empire Largest land empire ever created (from Korea to Poland)
6 B. Mongol Characteristics Purely cavalry Mounted archers that carried 5 dozen arrows Excellent riders Bows shoot 1/3 farther Quick movement made it difficult for people to adjust Adapted well when faced with new problems Would take engineers and pows to gain knowledge
7 C. The Mongol Conquests, Genghis Khan (born Timijun, aka Chingus) conquered Northern China. Used meritocracy Appealed to peasants The khanates of the Golden Horde, Jagadai, and the Il-Khans all swore allegiance to Genghis. Once Genghis dies, which we do not know where he was buried, his empire splits into four khanates. Similar to what happened to Alexander the Great Ogodei, Genghis son, expands into Russia ending Kievan rule and dies drinking stops advancement into Western Europe Genghis Khan Founder of the Mongol empire.
8 When Kublai Khan took over, the Jagadai Khan refused to accept him. Kublai established the Yuan empire and in 1279 he conquered the Southern Song. The Mongols were able to conquer a vast amount of territory because of their superior horsemanship, better bows, technique of following a volley of arrows with a cavalry charge, using non-mongol soldiers, reputation for slaughtering those who would not surrender, and their ability to take advantage of rivalries among their enemies. Allowed religious toleration Khubilai Khan (Grandson of Genghis) finished the conquest of China, created the Yuan dynasty, claimed the title of Great Khan, assumed supremacy over the other Mongol khanates.
9 Mongols fighting the Russians at the Battle of the Kalka River. Ended Kievan Russia rule of modern day Russia.
10 After the death of Genghis, the empire splits into the four different Khanates Great Khan, Golden Khan, Il-Khan, Jagadai
11 Mongols fighting the Teutonic Knights in Germany. Ogodei dies and the Mongols return to China to elect a new Khan.
12 D. Overland Trade and Plague Mongol conquests opened overland trade routes and brought commercial integration of Eurasia. Brought the Silk Road back to its greatness» Safe to travel Disease including the bubonic plague spread among the world. Marco Polo stimulates European desire for Asian goods
13 Route of Marco Polo along the reopened Silk Road. He stimulated the European desire to explore the east.
14 After the death of Genghis, the empire splits into the four different Khanates Great Khan, Golden Khan, Il-Khan, Jagadai
15 II. The Mongols and Islam, A. Mongol Rivalry In the 1260s the Il-Khan Mongols murdered the Abbasid Caliph because of religious differences. Batu Khan of the Golden Horde in Russia, converted to Islam and vowed to attack the Il-Khan region. Europeans attempted to help the non-muslim Il-Khans repel the Golden Horde Mongols, but the Il-Khan ruler Ghazan became a Muslim in The Il-Khan ruler Ghazan studying the Quran.
16 B. Islam and the State The goal of the Il-Khan state was to collect as much tax revenue as possible. The tax farming system was able to deliver large taxes, but over taxation led to inflation and a severe economic crisis sale of tax-collecting contracts to small corporations. Attempts to solve this crisis involved using paper money, but depression lasted until 1349 when the Golden Horde destroyed the Il-Khan empire. As the Golden Horde and the Il-Khan empires declined in the 14 th century, Timur built the Jagadai Khanate and his descendents, the Timurids, ruled the Middle East for several generations. Il-Khan gold coin during the time of Ghazan. Timur built the Jagadai Khanate. Ethnically he was a Turk, not a Mongol, so he could not be Khan.
17 The Jagadai Khanate rose in the 14 th century with the decline of the Golden Horde and the Il-Khan. (modern day Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan)
18 C. Culture and Science in Islamic Eurasia Juvaini wrote the first comprehensive work of the rise of the Mongols under Genghis Khan. Rashid al-din published a history of the world. Muslims under Mongol leadership made great strides in astronomy, calendar making, and the predication of eclipses. Devised decimal fractions, calculated the value of pi, and had a significant effect on the development of European science and mathematics. Since Mongols allowed people to keep their customs and beliefs it did not slow down production and thought Interesting that ruthless conquerors would bring peoples together Muslim historian, Rashid al-din s, history of the world Included history of Europe and China.
19 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia A. Russia and Rule from Afar The Golden Horde used Russian princes to tax the people and kept the Orthodox Church in place. Allowed for missionaries Favored Prince Alexander of Novogorod because he had aided in the Mongol conquest of Russia. Moscow emerged as the new center of the Russian civilization. Structure of government did not change under Mongol rule. In 1480 Ivan III, the prince of Moscow, ended Mongol rule and adopted the title of Tsar. Prince Alexander Nevskii of Novogorod allied with the Mongols because Russia would be destroyed if he resisted, essentially saving Russia. (right - example of Russian man at arms)
20 Depiction of Russian Prince Alexander Nevskii preparing for battle against the German Teutonics in the 1930s Russian film of the same name. (Propaganda)
21 Christian church in Moscow.
22 B. New States in Eastern Europe and Anatolia Europe was divided and the states of Hungary and Poland faced Mongol attacks alone. Mongol armies drove to the outskirts of Vienna, but withdrew in 1241 because they needed to elect a successor to the deceased Khan Ogodei. Europeans then initiated a variety of diplomatic and trade overtures toward the Mongols. Had sent monks to provide religion to captured troops but never found but recorded Mongol activities
23 Mongol invasions and the bubonic plague caused Europeans to question their religious beliefs. After Mongol power began to wane in the 13 th and 14 th centuries, strong centralized states such as Lithuania and the Balkan Kingdoms began to assert their control over their neighbors. Anatolia functioned as a route by which Islamic culture spread to Europe. The Ottomans were kept in check by the Timurids, but expanded eastward and conquered Constantinople in 1453 Timur was ruthless Mongol ruler who defeated Sultanate in India but did not stay Ottoman Turks under Mehmet II on his way to conquer the Byzantine empire. (notice the 2- ton cannon)
24 Columbian Exchange Friday November 22 Bring something edible associated with the Columbian Exchange Signup sheet Tuesday
25 IV. Mongol Domination in China, A. The Yuan Empire, Kublai Khan practiced Chinese traditions of government. Unified the Tanggut, Jin, and Southern Song empires. Made innovations of tax farming, Western Asian Muslims as officials, legally defined status groups, status of merchants and doctors was elevated, and Confucians lowered.
26 China s cities and ports prospered, trade recovered, and merchants flourished. Chinese population dropped as much as 40%, probably because of the spread of disease, warfare, infanticide, and the flooding of the Yellow River. Chinese were not allowed to learn Mongol or adopt Mongol ways This allowed for easy transition back to Chinese ways when China was no longer under Mongol rule but under the Ming Dynasty Mongols unified the Tanggut, Jin, and Song empires into the Yuan dynasty. (unified China as we know it)
27 B. Cultural and Scientific Exchange China imported Il- Khan science and technology. Il-Khans imported Chinese scholars and texts. Iranian astronomical knowledge, algebra, trigonometry, Islamic and Persian medical texts, seeds, and formulas were brought to China.
28 C. The Fall of the Yuan Empire Chinese leader Zhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu) overthrew the Mongols and established the Ming Empire. The Mongols still held Central Eurasia and were able to disrupt overland trade to threaten the Ming. The Ming were also threatened by the Jurchens
29 Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Mongols and established the Ming Empire.
30 Crash Course: Wait For It, The Mongols
31 V. The Early Ming Empire, A. Ming China on a Mongol Foundation Zhu Yuanzhang made great efforts to reject the culture of the Mongols, close off trade relations with Central Asia and the Middle East and reestablish Confucian ideology. Hongwu, the son of a peasant, became the 1 st Ming Emperor because he drove out the Mongols The Ming Dynasty ruled from They expected Europeans to pay tribute for trade The Ming still used hereditary professional categories, the Mongol calendar, and Beijing as the capital. Mongols continued to serve in the army.
32 B. Hongwu continued Hongwu restored agricultural land for rice and irrigation systems Dispersed relations with the West He adopted Confucian morals at first, but later became paranoid and killed officials he thought were a threat to his power
33 The Muslim eunuch admiral Zheng He launched a series of expeditions to Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean to reestablish trade links and bring these areas under Chinese control or influence. However, no real trade relations were established and the voyages were nonprofitable. The voyages were made more for the Yongle (Yonglo) Emperor to prove his worth. The Zheng He voyages were the last time that the state sponsored such voyages. Muslim eunuch admiral Zheng He launched a series of expeditions to Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean.
36 Comparison of ships from Zheng He and Columbus.
37 Zheng He s voyages.
39 China under the Powerful Ming Dynasty Ming Relations with Foreign Countries The Ming Government said that only they were allowed to conduct trade, and only through three ports: Canton, Macao and Ningbo. Got rid of voyages to focus more on domestic problems like invasion Completes Great Wall Chinese Merchants ignored the rule Desire for Chinese goods, tea, rice, porcelain (China), silk Too much money to be made
40 B. Technology and Population Chinese lost the knowledge to make high-quality bronze and steel. Korea and Japan moved ahead of Ming China in technological innovation. However, the Ming period was a time of great wealth, consumerism, and cultural brilliance. The novels, Water Margin and Romance of the Three Kingdoms, porcelain making, furniture, lacquered screens, and silk all contributed to this cultural brilliance. Example of Ming furniture. Example of Jade artwork
41 Example of Ming porcelain.
42 VI. Centralization & Militarism in East Asia, A. Korea from the Mongols to the Yi, The Korean King of Koryo joined the Mongols by marriage in Koryo collapsed when the Yuan dynasty fell apart and it was replaced by the Korean Yi dynasty. The Yi dynasty reestablished local identity and restored the status of Confucian scholarship while maintaining Mongol administrative practices and institutions. The Yi had technological innovations of moveable copper frames, meteorological science, local calendar, use of fertilizer, engineering of reservoirs, ships with canon, gunpowder arrow launchers, and armored ships. Gunpowder arrow launcher of the Korean Yi dynasty.
43 Gunpowder arrow launcher of the Korean Yi dynasty.
44 B. Political Transformation in Japan; Two Mongol invasions of Japan failed because of the Kamikaze winds (divine winds) and strong defensive preparations along the coastline. The Kamakura shogunate was destroyed in a civil war and the Ashikaga shogunate was established in Shogun is a military leader» Most of Japanese history the emperor has been simply a figurehead Local leaders called daimyo Similar to the feudal system in Europe Samurai, warrior class, followed a strict code similar to chivalry called bushido Black ink painting, sand gardens, and the tea ceremony were adopted by the Yoshimasa shogunate and they were influenced by Zen Buddhism. The Onin War of 1477 showed that the shogunate had no real power and the provincial lords fought each other for power.
45 Japanese samurai from the Kamakura shogunate.
46 C. The Emergence of Vietnam, Vietnam was divided into two states: Chinese influenced Annam in the north Indian influenced Champa in the south. The Mongols extracted tribute from both states. The Ming ruled Annam for almost thirty years in the early 15 th century, but Annam overthrew them and they completely conquered Champa. Established a Chinese style government over all of Vietnam. The dominant faith of Annam was Mahayana Buddhism which distinguished them from other Southeast Asian groups who practiced Theraveda Buddhism.
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