1 Chapter 9: Islam & the Arab Empire, Lesson 3: Islamic Civilization
2 World History Bell Ringer # What led to the development of the Islamic caliphate? A. The death of Muhammad left no male successors. B. The leadership of Abū Bakr as Muhammad s advisor. C. The Quran required it under Islamic law. D. The spread of Islam into Africa. 2. How did the Islamic caliphate under Abū Bakr s leadership spread Islam to Asia, Africa, and parts of Europe? A. Religious conversion. C. Trade. B. Conquest. D. Colonization.
3 World History Bell Ringer #41 3. The revolt led by Hussein during the early Umayyad period led to which of the following? A. A bloody war that lasted just seven days. B. The destruction of the burial place of Muhammad. C. The split of Islam into two separate groups. D. The strengthening of the Umayyad dynasty. 4. The Umayyad dynasty was replaced by which of the following? A. Abbasid rulers. B. Bedouin rulers. C. Egyptian rulers. D. Sunni rulers. 5. During the Abbasid dynasty, the council that advised the caliph was led by a prime minister A. An arabesque. B. An astrolabe. C. A sultan. D. A vizier.
4 World History Bell Ringer #41 6. What purpose did dhimmitude serve in Muslim ruled territories? A. To enforce Sharia law on all Christians and Jews. B. To impose increased taxation on all non-muslim groups to raise revenue. C. To remind Christians and Jews that they lived under Muslim rule. D. To segregate Muslim, Christian, and Jewish societies. 7. As the Arab Empire grew, people who were not Muslims or did not convert to Islam in the conquered territories A. Had to give up all of their property to the empire. B. Had to pay special taxes. C. Were banished from those territories. D. Were imprisoned for at least five years.
5 World History Bell Ringer #41 8. Why were interactions among Muslim, Christian, and Jewish societies usually peaceful in the conquered territories of Asia and North Africa? A. Because people in the conquered territories prospered equally from trade. B. Because conquered Christians and Jews were allowed to practice their religions. C. Because everyone was required to convert to Islam and be loyal to Muslim rule. D. Because there was minimal interaction among groups in the sparsely populated territories. 9. By the time the Umayyad dynasty was established, the Arab Empire had already conquered which of the following? A. The Austro-Hungarian Empire. C. Southern France and Corsica. B. The Persian Empire. D. Switzerland.
6 It Matters Because An extensive trade network brought prosperity to the Islamic world. Muslim scholars made great advances in the areas of mathematics and the natural sciences. Islamic art and architecture incorporated innovative, geometric decorations.
7 Prosperity in the Islamic World Guiding Question: What factors allowed both urban and rural areas to flourish after the 8 th century within the Arab Empire? Despite internal struggles, this was one of the most prosperous periods in the history of the Middle East. The Arabs carried on extensive trade both by ship and by camel caravans, which traveled from Morocco in the far west to the countries beyond the Caspian Sea. From south of the Sahara came gold and slaves; from China, silk and porcelain; from eastern Africa, gold and ivory; from Spain, iron and metals; and from Southeast Asia and India, sandalwood and spices. Within the empire, Egypt contributed grain; Iraq provided linens, dates, and precious stones; and western India supplied textiles. The development of banking and the use of coins made it easier to exchange goods.
9 Prosperity in the Islamic World With flourishing trade came exposure to different goods and the rise of prosperous cities. While the Abbasids were in power, the Asian city of Baghdad- the Abbasid capital known as the City of Peace, was probably the greatest city in the empire and one of the greatest cities in the world. After the rise of the Fatimids in the African country of Egypt, however, the focus of trade shifted to Cairo. Another great trading city was the Asian city of Damascus in modernday Syria. Such an increase in overall trade made Asian and African cities like Baghdad, Cairo, and Damascus the centers of cultural, administrative, and economic activity for their regions.
10 Prosperity in the Islamic World The bazaar, or covered market, was a crucial part of every Muslim city or town. The bazaar was an important trading center, where goods from all the known world were for sale. Customers could compare prices and seek the best bargains. To make sure of high standards, bazaars had market inspectors who enforced rules. The bazaar also housed many craftspeople's shops, as well as services like laundries and bathhouses.
11 Connections to TODAY Bazaars in the Islamic World Many bazaars still exist throughout the Islamic world today. Perhaps the most celebrated is Īstanbul's Kapalıçarşı (Turkish for covered bazaar ), or Grand Bazaar, which was built 550 years ago by the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II after his conquest of Constantinople. As the centuries passed, the foundation of the modern Turkish banking system was established in the Grand Bazaar. Today this huge commercial complex has more than 3,600 businesses. It is a frequent first stop foreign visitors to Īstanbul. More than 500,000 people pass daily through the Grand Bazaar when it is open for business.
12 Grand Bazaar Video Clip Turkey.Home - Home of GRAND BAZAAR
13 Prosperity in the Islamic World The Arab Empire was more urbanized (developed) than most other areas of the known world at the time. Nevertheless, a majority of people still lived in the country, making their living by farming or herding animals. During the early stages of the empire, most of the farmland was owned by independent peasants. Later, wealthy landowners began to amass large estates. Some lands were owned by the state or the court and were farmed by slave labor.
14 Islamic Society Guiding Question: How were the principles of Islam reflected in the social structure of the Arab Empire? To be a Muslim is not simply to worship Allah, but also to live one s life according to Allah s teachings as revealed in the Quran. This also included social life.
15 Social Structure According to Islam, all Muslim people are equal in the eyes of Allah. The doctrine, however, was not translated into social reality. There was a fairly well-defined upper class that consisted of ruling families, senior officials, nomadic elites, and the wealthiest merchants. Even ordinary merchants, however, enjoyed a degree of respect that merchants did not receive in Europe, China, or India. Non-Muslims were not considered equal to Muslims in the Islamic world. As in the other early civilizations, slavery was widespread. Because Muslims could not be slaves in Islamic society, most of their slaves came from Africa or from non-islamic populations elsewhere in Asia, resulting in a significant impact on societies in these places. Many had been captured in war.
16 Social Structure Slaves often served in the army. This was especially true of slaves recruited from the Turks of central Asia. Many military slaves were freed. Some even came to exercise considerable power. Many slaves, especially women, were used as domestic servants. These slaves were sometimes permitted to purchase their freedom. Islamic law made it clear that slaves should be treated fairly, and it was considered a good act to free them.
17 The Role of Women The Quran granted women spiritual equality with men. Believers, men and women, were to be friends and protectors of one another. Women had the right to the fruits of their work and to own and inherit property, although the Quran did state that if an inheritance was shared, men were to inherit twice that of women. Islamic teachings accounted for differences between men and women in the family and social order. Both had duties and responsibilities. As in most societies of the time, men were dominant in Muslim society.
18 The Role of Women Every woman had a male guardian, be it father, brother, or other male relative. Parents or guardians arranged marriages for their children. The Quran allowed Muslim men to have more than 1 wife, but no more than 4 wives. Most men, however, were unable to afford more than 1 wife, because they were required to pay a dowry (a gift of money or property) to their brides. Women enjoyed certain privileges, like the right to freely enter into marriage, and the right of divorce under some circumstances. Adultery was forbidden to both men and women.
19 The Role of Women After the spread of Islam, older, pre-islamic customs slowly eroded the rights enjoyed by early Muslim women. For example, some women were secluded and kept from social contacts with males outside their families. The custom of requiring women to cover virtually all parts of their bodies when appearing in public was common in the cities and is still practiced today in many Islamic societies. It should be noted, however, that these customs owed more to traditional Arab practice than to the Quran. Despite the restrictions, the position of women in Islamic society was better than it had been in former times, when women had often been treated like slaves.
21 Philosophy, Science, & History Guiding Question: What were the major contributions of Islamic scholars? During the first few centuries of the Arab Empire, the ancient Greek philosophers were largely unknown in Christian Europe. The Arabs, however, were aware of Greek philosophy and were translating works by Plato and Aristotle into Arabic. It was through the Muslim world that Europeans recovered the works of Aristotle and other Greek philosophers. In the 12 th century, the Arabic translations were translated into Latin, making them available to the West. This process was aided by papermaking, which was introduced from China in the 700 s A.D. By the end of the century, paper factories were found in Baghdad. Booksellers and libraries soon followed.
23 Philosophy, Science, & History Islamic civilization contributed more intellectually to the West than translations. When Aristotle s works arrived in Europe in the 2 nd half of the 12 th century, they were accompanied by commentaries written by outstanding Arabic philosophers. One such philosopher was Ibn-Rushd. Ibn-Rushd lived in Córdoba and wrote a commentary on virtually all of Aristotle s surviving works. Islamic scholars also made contributions to mathematics and the natural sciences that were passed on to the West. The Muslims adopted and passed on the numerical system of India, including the use of the zero. In Europe, it became known as the Arabic system, which we use today. A ninth-century Arab mathematician developed the mathematical discipline of algebra, which is taught in schools today and can be applied to fields like medicine, economics, and engineering.
25 Philosophy, Science, & History Islamic scholars also made significant contributions to major scientific ideas and technological advances. In astronomy, Muslims set up an observatory at Baghdad to study the positions of the stars. They knew that Earth was round, and they named many stars. They also perfected a technological instrument called the astrolabe- an instrument used by sailors to determine their location. The spread of the use of the astrolabe into Europe made it possible for Europeans to sail to the Americas.
27 Philosophy, Science, & History Additionally, Muslim scholars developed medicine as a field of scientific study. Al-Razi was known as the best doctor of his time in the 10 th century in Baghdad. Al-Razi wrote numerous works to educate others in the medical knowledge of his day. Also well known was the philosopher and scientist Ibn Sı-na. Ibn Sı-na wrote a medical encyclopedia that, among other things, stressed the contagious nature of certain diseases. Ibn Sı-na showed how diseases could be spread by contaminated water supplies. Ibn Sı-na was one of many Arabic scholars whose work was translated into Latin and was spread westward, aiding the growth of intellectual life in Europe in the 1100 s and 1200 s.
29 Philosophy, Science, & History Islamic scholars also took an interest in writing history. Ibn-Khaldun was the most prominent Muslim historian of the age. In Ibn-Khaldun s most famous work, Muqaddimah (Introduction to History), he argued for a cyclical view of history. Civilizations, he believed, go through regular cycles of birth, growth, and decay. Ibn-Khaldun tried to find a scientific basis for the political and social factors that determine the course of history.
30 Literature, Art, & Architecture Guiding Question: How did the arts convey the ideals of spiritual glory in Islam? Islam brought major changes to the culture of Southwest Asia, including its literature. Though Muslims regarded the Quran as their greatest literary work, pre- Islamic traditions contributed to influence writers. One of the most familiar works of Middle Eastern literature is the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyám. We know little of the life and poetry of this 12 th century Persian poet, mathematician, and astronomer, but we know that Omar Khayyám composed his poetry orally. His simple, direct poetry was recorded later by friends or scribes.
32 Literature, Art, & Architecture Islamic art is a blend of Arab, Turkish, and Persian traditions, reflecting the history of these 3 cultures. Most decorations on Islamic art consisted of Arabic letters, natural plants, and abstract figures. These decorations were repeated over and over in geometric patterns called arabesques that completely covered the surfaces of objects. The Hadith- an early collection of Muhammad s sayings, warns against any attempt to imitate God by creating pictures of living beings. As a result, no representations of figures, including Muhammad, appear in Islamic religious art.
34 Literature, Art, & Architecture The best expression of Islamic architecture is found in the way Muslim mosques represent the spirit of Islam. A significant example of this architecture that demonstrates the Islamic artistic ideal is The Great Mosque of Sa-marra- in present-day Iraq. It was the world s largest mosque at the time it was built (848 A.D. to 852 A.D), covering 10 acres (more than 40,000 square m). The most famous section of this mosque, its minaret, is nearly 90 feet tall and has an unusual outside spiritual staircase. The muezzin, or crier, calls the faithful to prayer 5 times each day from the minaret.
36 Literature, Art, & Architecture Because the Muslim religion unites spiritual and political power, palaces were built to reflect this unity and the glory of Islam. Beginning in the 8 th century with the castles of Syria, Islamic rulers built large brick palaces with protective walls, gates, and baths. Designed around a central courtyard surrounded by two-story arcades and massive gate-towers, Islamic castles resembled fortresses. The finest example of the Islamic palace is the Alhambra in Granada, Spain. Built in the 14 th century, every inch of the castle s surface is decorated in floral and abstract patterns. Much of the decoration is finely carved plasterwork that looks like lace. The Alhambra is an excellent expression of Islamic art blending with architecture, reflecting the social impact of Islam on Europe through cultural expression.
38 Assignment Complete Chapter 9, Lesson 3 Quiz. You are allowed to use your notes to assist you on completing your quiz. Reminder on the Modified True/False section of your lesson quiz that if the statement is false, you must edit the statement to make it a true statement. You will turn your lesson quiz in on Wednesday (12/6).
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