1 Hindu Hinduism Sacred Images Narrative Traditions
2 We have already learned that the stories of Hinduism came from the Vedic Texts. In the course of the first Millennium BCE the Vedas were succeeded by the Upanishads and Brahmans. Even at that point there is no mention of Vishnu, Shiva or Shakti only Bramah.
3 The next significant Sanskrit texts are the Ramayana or Mahabharata (including Bhagavad Gita) and epics composed in about the 4 th -3 rd centuries BCE. ( BCE) Poetic narratives assume the existence of divine figures who manifest themselves to their human worshippers. The complex myths of the Bhagavad Gita, Mahabharata (mah-bra-ata) and Ramayana were of crucial importance in shaping the personalities and aspects of the Hindu deities.
4 But it wasn t until the first or second century CE when these legends shifted to the personalities of Shiva, Vishnu and Shakti. Though they were mentioned in the Vedic texts much earlier.
5 Sacred Images Though there is a wide array of images in Hindu art there is a consistency in the representation of the various personalities. This is because of the canons that guided sculptors and painters.
6 Image-making manuals guided artisans on how to work by defined rules. It was only by working according to these strict rules could the deity be persuaded to inhabit the image. Remember the importance of this from earlier beliefs? Dancing Shiva,
7 A fundamental principle of Hindu theology is the concept of multiplicity. The major deities are worshipped in a large variety of forms that reflect their powers and natures. Shiva as a multi headed Lingam, represents regeneration.
8 In order to express super-human powers Hindu divinities are often represented with multiple arms, heads or with animals. Hybrid creatures combine animal and human (in avatars of Vishnu and yoginis) Dancing Shiva, rock-cut relief in cave temple, Badami, India, late sixth century.
9 Main Deities Brama--the god responsible for creation. Shiva is lord of destruction and practitioner of more peaceful arts Vishnu s avatars enumerate the occasions when the god comes to earth to save mankind. Krisna appears as a mischievous child, flirtations cowherd and wise charioteer. Shakti s appearances range from goddesses of annihilation and death to those who guarantee peace and prosperity.
11 Brama--the god responsible for creation -essence of all beings past, present, future. -sustains and governs the universe
12 Brahma 4 heads, 4 faces, 4 arms Unlike other gods, he has no weapons but holds symbols of knowledge and creation: Ladle to feed the sacrificial fire A vessel for water where all creation comes Prayer beads A scroll the Vedas Often sitting on a lotus (symbol of nature and living essence) Wears a crown
13 Here he is riding his swan.
14 Vishnu--the god responsible for creation -essence of all beings past, present, future. -sustains and governs the universe Vishnu standing, 12 th Century Vishnu riding Garuda, 4-5 th Cent. Vietnam
15 Usually depicted Blue color With four arms. In each hand he holds: Lotus Flower Mace (used in warfare) Conch Discus weapon
16 The Bhagavad Gita describes Vishnu as the all-pervading essence of all beings, the master of and beyond the past, present and future, the creator and destroyer of all existences, one who supports, preserves, sustains and governs the universe and originates and develops all elements within.
17 Vishnu descends to earth on the back of Garuda (mythical bird creature that appears in both Buddhist and Hindu mythology. Sometimes shown as an eagle.) to deliver Gajendra, and elephant devotee of the god who had been trapped in a lotus pond. Snake king and queen have captured him. Dashavatara temple, Madhya Pradesh
18 Vishnu is either worshiped as himself as he reclines and rests on the king of the serpent deities.. Here he Narayana who reclines on the serpent Ananta (Infinity) afloat the casual waters. As he dreams, a lotus arises from his navel, bearing Brahma the personification of the creative principle inherent in Consciousness.
19 Vishnu is worshiped as one of his 10 avitars The most famous are: Rama Krishna
20 Krishna Battles the Armies of the Demon Naraka: Page from a Dispersed Bhagavata Purana (Ancient Stories of Lord Vishnu), ca India, Delhi-Agra area Ink and opaque watercolor on paper 7 x 9 1/8 in. (17.8 x 23.2 cm Krishna as Cowherd 1860 India, Delhi-Agra area guache on paper
21 Vishnu s wife is Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess of wealth, fortune and prosperity (material and spiritual). The worship of Lakshmi, predates that of Vishnu. Images of her have been found in the Indus Valley area as far back as 1,000 BCE She is also worshiped as a Jain Goddess.
22 Shiva worshiped as the destroyer and transformer. Depicted as: -Lingam -A yogi -A man with his wife, Parvati and sons Ganesha and Kartikeya -The Cosmic Dancer -Slaying Demon --Ardhanarishvara, Shiva and Devi (male and female) v=vtvktvopjwy
23 Linga Ardhanarishvara Shiva as male/ female Shiva as Sadashiva note attributes
24 Shiva- as the cosmic dancer. Here, Shiva embodies perfect physical qualities as he is frozen in the moment of his dance within the cosmic circle of fire that is the creation and destruction of the universe. The ring of fire that surrounds the figure is the encapsulated cosmos of mass, time, and space, whose endless cycle of annihilation and regeneration moves in tune to the beat of Shiva s drum and the rhythm of his steps. Dancing Shiva,
25 Shiva- as the cosmic dancer. When the worshiper comes before the statue and begins to pray, faith activates the divine energy inherent in the statue, and at that moment, Shiva is present. Shiva as Lord of the Dance (Nataraja), c. 11th century, Copper alloy, Chola period,
26 Shakti Female aspect of the divine. Goddesses as childbearing, nourishing and maternal divinity. Creative energy as Parvati or Devi, Shakti personifies the benign and bountiful nature of Shiva.
27 Meaning power or empowerment, Shakti also appears as her avitar, Parvati, the consort of Shiva. 11 th century & 11 th or 10th
28 Unknown to Vedic literature, Durga, appears in the middle ages. Her legends depict an angry, ferocious aspects of a mother goddess. She manifests as a goddess with eight or ten arms holding weapons and skulls of demons, and is astride on a tiger or lion.[
29 Ganesha the elephant-deity riding a mouse. The son of Shiva and Parvati, He is the Lord of success and destroyer of evils and obstacles.
30 He is also worshipped as the god of education, knowledge, wisdom and wealth. In fact, Ganesha is one of the five prime Hindu gods.
31 Beginnings: second century BCE to second century ADE While sacred scriptures of Hinduism date back to the middle of the first Millennium BCE, Hindu architecture and art are relatively late. Nothing associated with Hindu culture exist prior to the fifth century. This doesn t mean there were no shrines but rather that they have not survived.
32 The stone icons found during this time do not depict the gods or goddesses of Hinduism; instead they show human-like spirits implying wealth and abundance these are the yaksha images.
33 The stone icons found during this time do not depict the gods or goddesses of Hinduism; instead they show human-like spirits implying wealth and abundance these are the yaksha images.
34 The Buddhist Heritage The beginning of Hindu architecture and sculpture are indebted to the art of Buddhism. After being adopted by Ashoka Buddhism became the dominant state religion from the 2 nd century BCE onward. Because of the active policy of propagation by Ashoka and his successors, it was the first religion in India to exploit the possibilities of an official art realized in permanent materials.
35 seated images of the Buddha meditating beneath the multihooded canopy of the serpent Muchalinda resembled those of Vishnu protected by Anata.
36 Reclining images of the Buddha dying resemble those of Vishnu floating on the cosmic ocean.
37 Some deities make an appearance in both Hindu and Buddhist pantheons, the goddess Lakshmi, for one. Nagas with human upper bodies sheltered by serpent hoods and the river goddesses Ganga and Yamuna, embracing mithunas (union of male and female), and pot bellied ganas.
38 The ubiquitous lotus, the basis of virtually all ornament in India, has a long and varied history in both Buddhist and Hindu traditions.
39 Shunga, 2nd Century BCE, Lakshmi as the lotus goddess bathed by elephants holding uptruned pots in their trunks. All are standing on the lotus flowers emanating from a single pot. Note: book has a similar image but is located from a raling post of the stupa at Bharhut in Madhya Pradesh.
40 Youthful Krisna fighting the horse demon Keshi. Plaque from ruined temple in Uttar Pradesh, Gupta period. Krisna s aggressive kicking posture combined with the tightly framed composition convey the violence between the god and the demon.
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