Church History, Middle Ages Part I: Monks. How monks saved and shaped European Culture

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1 Church History, Middle Ages Part I: Monks How monks saved and shaped European Culture

2 Middle Ages A. Barbarian Invasions and the Fall of Rome AD

3 Middle Ages 1.Invasion of the Germanic tribes a. First Sack of Rome 410 AD by Alaric and the Visigoths b. Fall of Carthage 439 by Genseric and the Vandals c. Leo the Great's negotiations with Attila and the Huns 452

4 d. Second Sack of Rome 455 by Genseric and the Vandals e. Rome's fall 476: last Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus dethroned by Odoacer of the Ostrogoths (Odoacer, himself hewn in two by Theodoric 493) 2. Conversion of Clovis, king of the Franks, and 3,000 of his warriors, Christmas day 496: married Clotilde, a Catholic barbarian princess

5 When the dust settles Kingdom of the Ostrogoths Kingdom of Visigoths

6 The Monks Common Principle: living the Faith more deeply and making it possible for others to do so Different Methods

7 3. Strains of Monasticism a. Eastern Monastic tradition: arrives in West through trade routes (flight from the world) b. Benedictine Monastic tradition (prayer and work) c. Celtic Monastic tradition: the fruit of St. Patrick, later spread by St. Columban, et al. (Penitence)

8 Altered

9 4. Monasticism s impact on the conversion of the Barbarians a. Guesthouses sheltered refugees b. Greco-Roman culture preserved by the monks copying manuscripts c. Monastic schools preserved education d. Missionary Monks converted the barbarians e. Monasteries founded by missionaries to sustain the conversion of the people

10 Celtic Monasticism Extreme austerities Missionary wanderings Monasteries as advance posts in enemy territory St. Patrick c Armagh St. Columba-- Iona St. Columban Bangor

11 The path of the Celtic missionary monks 6 th to 8 th Centuries Altered

12 St. Benedict of Nursia Born 480 Monte Casino founded 529 Death 547

13 Enfide

14 Subiaco

15 Monte Casino

16 St. Scholastica

17

18 Pope St. Gregory, the Great At the time of Benedict s death only three monasteries followed the Benedictine rule (Subiaco, Monte Casino and Terricina) c. 547 Lombard Duke takes Monte Casino as his own fortress 589 Monks dispersed some coming to Rome Gregory founds and enters a Benedictine Monastery in Rome Gregory elected Pope 590 Sends Augustine with forty monks to mission to the Angles and Saxons of Britain 597 Gradually other monasteries will adopt the Benedictine Rule

19 St. Boniface, Apostle to the Frisians Winfrid is born near Wessex, England c. 680 Benedictine oblate at Exeter Abbey, 7 years old Head master of a school, Nutshulling Abbey At 30 years old starts his peregrination for Christ Initial mission to Frisia a failure Lives in Rome Pope Gregory II ordains him a missionary bishop and changes his name to Boniface You shall not be called Winfrid any more, but Boniface, meaning, he who performs good works! Pope Gregory III sends Boniface the pallium as his first act as Pope Anoints Pepin, the Short 751 Martyrdom June 5, 754

20 Alcuin and the Carolingian Renaissance English Benedictine, Lindisfarne Head Master of the episcopal school at York Minister of Education for Charlemagne Oversaw the copying of the Vulgate. Development of Carolingian script: punctuation and spaces between words lead to greater ease in reading the Bible

21 Second wave of Invasions

22 Cluny Benedictine reform during the midst of feudalism and lay investiture

23 St. Peter Monastery: Motherhouse of the Cluniac reform Founder: William I, Duke of Aquitaine 910 Donation of his hunting grounds in Burgundy Release of the abbey from any obligations to him or his family other than prayer First Abbot: St. Berno Unique organization: Subject directly to Pope with the stipulation of monks right to approve: Appointments of abbots Dispersion of order s property Rule of St. Benedict Prohibition on holding land by feudal service Centralized government Liturgy as the main form of work

24 Cluny s influence Collaboration with Leo IX on the Truce of God c Four Popes from among its monks Gregory VII Urban II Paschal II Urban V Conclave of 1119 at Cluny elected Pope Callixtus II

25

26 Cistercian Reform 1098 St. Robert of Molesme St. Alberic St. Stephen Harding

27 Citeaux

28 St. Bernard of Clairvaux Born 1091 Enters Citeaux 1113 with 30 friends and relatives Founds Clairvaux, 1116 Preaching in Burgundy 1134 Mission for the Pope, reconciliation of kings 1137 Preaches second Crusade at bidding of the Pope 1145 Death at Clairvaux 1153

29 Clairvaux

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