South Asia Notes. Unit 10-3wks Test

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1 South Asia Notes Unit 10-3wks Test

2 Indian Subcontinent India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, the Maldives called Indian Subcontinent because India dominates the region Though half the size of U.S., area has 1/5 of world s people Natural barriers separate subcontinent from rest of Asia mountains form northern border, Indian Ocean surrounds rest Arabian Sea to west, Bay of Bengal to east

3 Himalaya Mountains 1,500-mile-long system of parallel ranges include world s tallest mountain Mt. Everest form barrier between Indian subcontinent and China kingdoms of Nepal, Bhutan are also in these mountains

4 The Maldives Maldives is archipelago island group of 1,200 small islands stretch north to south for 500 miles off Indian coast, near equator Islands are atolls lowlying tops of submerged volcanoes surrounded by coral reefs, shallow lagoons Total land area of Maldives is 115 square miles only 200 islands are inhabited

5 Proximity to the Indian Ocean and the equator creates tropical climate in much of India. Tropical Climate

6 Monsoons seasonal winds that affect entire region dry winds blow from northeast October February moist ocean winds blow from southwest June September moist winds bring heavy rainfall, especially in southwest, Ganges Delta unpredictable; cause hardship in lowlands of India, Bangladesh

7 Impact of the Monsoons Summer monsoons nourish rain forests, irrigate crops floodwaters bring rich sediment to soil, but can also damage crops Cyclones are common with summer monsoons called hurricanes in North America Cause flooding, widespread destruction 1970 Bangladesh cyclone killed 300,000 Winter monsoon droughts turn lush lands into arid wastelands

8 Cyclone violent storm with fierce winds, heavy rain In Bangladesh low coastal region swamped by high waves

9 Rivers- Pollution Rivers play a central role in the lives of South Asians. Water pollution and flooding pose great challenges to South Asian countries.

10 Human Interaction Human interaction with the environment in South Asia has intensified environmental issues. Such as building on the river flood plains in the Himalaya Deforestation And other activities, destabilize slopes are responsible for loss of life.

11 Ganges is the best-known South Asian river it s shorter than the Indus, Brahmaputra flows 1,500 miles from Himalayan glacier to Bay of Bengal drains area three times France; home to 350 million people Sacred home of the goddess Ganga Provides drinking and farming water, transportation Known as Gangamai Mother Ganges becomes the Padma where it meets the Brahmaputra Ganges

12 Hinduism is the religion of most Indians To Hindus, the Ganges River is the sacred home of the goddess Ganga Hindus believe waters have healing powers; temples line its banks pilgrims come to bathe, scatter ashes of dead at sacred site of Varanasi they gather daily for prayer, purification float baskets of flowers, burning candles on water Sacred River

13 Centuries of use have made Ganges most polluted river in world sewage, industrial waste, human bodies poison the water Users get stomach and intestinal diseases, hepatitis, typhoid, cholera In 1986, government plans sewage treatment plants, regulations Today few plants are operational, factories still dump waste Clean up will take time, money, a change in how people see river Polluted River

14 Religions India- most are practicing Hindus Also home to Muslims, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs

15 India s Independence India gains its independence from Britain in 1947 Muslim Pakistan splits from Hindu India; violence, migrations result Constitution is created under first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru a democratic republic since 1950 System has federation of states, strong central government, like U.S. parliamentary system, like U.K. India is mostly Hindu, but with large Muslim, Sikh, Tamil minorities Sikhs kill Gandhi s daughter, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, 1984 Tamils assassinate her son, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, 1991

16 Mohandas K. Gandhi Early and mid- 1900s, led India s fight for independence Mohandas K. Gandhi. Using nonviolent methods, such as boycotting British product and staging peaceful demonstrations, Gandhi inspired the peoples of India to seek self-rule. He worked to end the rigid social system and promote local industry, such as spinning and weaving. Enduring prison and hunger strikes in the struggle for independence, Gandhi earned the name Mahatma or Great Soul.

17 80% of Indians are Hindu; complex Aryan religion includes many gods reincarnation rebirth of the soul after death Original Aryan caste system of social classes: Brahmans priests, scholars; Kshatriyas rulers, warriors Vaisyas farmers, merchants; Sudras artisans, laborers Dalits (untouchables) are outside caste system lowest status Dharma is a caste s moral duty; only reincarnation changes caste Hinduism

18 Partitioning of India and Pakistan Muslims in India fled to Pakistan Hindus in Pakistan fled to India New political borders were created to divide ethnic groups partition creates Hindu India, Muslim Pakistan Hindu-Muslim violence killed one million people 10 million crossed borders: Hindus to India, Muslims to Pakistan Ethnic differences led to civil war between West and East Pakistan East Pakistan won independence in 1971, became Bangladesh

19 Physical process responsible for creating flood zones are silt deposits along the major river systems create low lying areas that flood easily during snow melt and seasonal rains. Flooding Zones

20 Adapting to the extensive flooding is necessary Bangladesh Floods

21 Source of conflict among nations of South Asia because its people are predominantly Islamic, though controlled by India. Kashmir

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