CHAPTER 2: WESTERN ASIA & EGYPT B.C.

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1 CHAPTER 2: WESTERN ASIA & EGYPT B.C.

2 CIVILIZATION BEGINS IN MESOPOTAMIA Chapter 2: Section 1

3 Civilization in Mesopotamia Begins Main Ideas Mesopotamia, one one of of the the first first civilizations, began between the the Tigris Tigris and and Euphrates Rivers. The Sumerians formed city-states and created forms of communication that affect our lives today. Key Terms patriarchal polythestic cuneiform

4

5 TIMELINE: MESOPOTAMIA

6 The Fertile Crescent The land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers was known as Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia was located at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent, an arc of land from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. This land would be enriched by large deposits of silt, which was deposited by the two rivers during unpredictable flooding in late spring.

7

8 The Fertile Crescent People in Mesopotamia controlled flooding by creating irrigation and drainage ditches. This allowed for the growing of an abundance of food and civilization emerged.

9 Areas of Mesopotamia Ancient Mesopotamia covered three general areas: Assyria, Akkad, and Sumer. Several peoples lived in these areas Mesopotamian civilization involved many peoples. The Sumerians developed the first Mesopotamian civilization.

10 CONSIDER THE AREA WHERE YOU LIVE. WHAT ROLES HAS GEOGRAPHY PLAYED IN HOW YOUR AREA HAS DEVELOPED PHYSICALLY, COMMERCIALLY, AND CULTURALLY? Discussion Question

11 The City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia By 3000 B.C. the Sumerians had formed a number of city-states centered around cities such as Ur and Uruk. These states controlled the surrounding countryside politically and economically. City-states were the basic political unit of the Sumerian civilization.

12 The Sumerians built largely with mud bricks. Using them they invented the arch and the dome and built some of the largest brick buildings in the world. The most important building in each city was the temple. Often it was built on top of a massive stepped tower called a ziggurat.

13 Sumerians believed gods and goddesses owned and ruled the cities. The Sumerian state was a theocracy, then a government by divine authority. Priests and priestesses were important figures politically as well as religiously. Eventually, ruling power passed more into the hands of kings, who traced their authority back to the divine.

14 The Sumerian economy was principally agricultural, but industry (metalwork and woolen textiles, for example) and trade were important. The invention of the wheel around 3000 B.C. facilitated trade.

15 The Sumerian city-states had three classes: nobles, commoners, and slaves. Nobles included the royal family, royal officials, priests, and their families. Commoners worked for large estates as farmers, merchants, fishers, and craftspeople. Around 90 percent of the people were farmers. Slaves principally worked on large building projects, wove cloth, and worked the farms of the nobles.

16 THE SUMERIAN CITY-STATES WERE THEOCRACIES (THEO MEANING GOD AND CRACY MEANING RULE ). IN A THEOCRACY, GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY IS FOUNDED UPON DIVINE AUTHORITY. CANADA IS A DEMOCRACY. ON WHAT AUTHORITY IS ITS GOVERNMENTAL POWER BASED? Discussion Question

17 The Fertile Crescent The Sumerians were the creators of the first Mesopotamian civilization. The Mesopotamians were polytheistic believing in over 3,000 different gods or goddesses.

18 Sumerian Cities Sumerian cities like Uruk, were surrounded by walls as long as 10 km with defense towers every 10 meters. Uruk, one of the largest cities had a population of an estimated 50,000 people by 2700 B.C. Walls and structures were made of sun dried brick due to a lack of wood and stone for building purposes.

19 Religion and Rulers The most prominent building in a Sumerian city was the temple built to honour the local deity. The temple was built upon a massive stepped tower like structure called a Ziggurat.

20 Sumerian Religion Due to the harsh physical environment and famines, Mesopotamians believed that the world was controlled by often destructive supernatural forces and deities. The Mesopotamians were polytheistic because they believed in many gods and goddesses. They identified three thousand of them.

21 Sumerian Religion Human beings were to serve and obey the gods and goddesses. Sumerians believed that human beings were created to do the manual labor the gods and goddesses were not willing to do. As inferior beings, people could never be sure what the deities might do to help or hurt them.

22 Daily menu for the god Anu at Uruk: 12 vessels of wine 2 vessels of milk 108 vessels of beer 243 loaves of bread 29 bushels of dates 21 rams 2 bulls l bullock 8 lambs 60 birds 3 cranes 7 ducks 4 wild boars 3 ostrich eggs 3 duck eggs Do not copy, interest only. I found it interesting, anyway

23 Religion and Rulers The Temples and related buildings served as the center of the city physically, economically, and even politically. Surplus food and crafts were stored in the temple and then distributed or traded. It is possible that the early priests had a part in ruling and the Sumerian government was a theocracy- a government by divine authority.

24 Religion and Rulers Eventually power would reside in the office of the king who would lead armies, supervise public works construction and organized workers for irrigation projects.

25 Writing and Literature Around 3,000 B.C. the Sumerians created a cuneiform system of writing. Using a reed stylus, they made wedge shaped impressions on clay tablets, which were then baked in the sun. A system of writing was important because it allowed for the keeping of records and the passing of knowledge.

26 Cuneiform: Wedge-Shaped Writing

27 Cuneiform

28 Cuneiform

29 Cuneiform Writing

30 Deciphering Cuneiform

31 Writing and Literature One of the earliest surviving works of Sumerian literature is the Epic of Gilgamesh. It tells the tale of the adventures the Uruk King, Gilgamesh and his friend Enkidu. Gilgamesh is wise and strong, a being who is part human and part god. Gilgamesh befriends a hairy beast named Enkidu. When Enkidu dies, Gilgamesh feels the pain of his friend s death, and he searches for the secret of immortality. He fails.

32 Mesopotamian Harp

33 Board Game From Ur

34 Sophisticated Metallurgy Skills at Ur

35 Science and innovations The Sumerians are credited with numerous inventions such as: The wagon wheel The Arch The potters wheel The Sundial Number system based on month calendar based on the cycles of the moon First to make bronze and develop a metal plow

36

37 The Akkadian and Babylonian Empires To the north of the Sumerian city-states were the Akkadians. Akkadians spoke a Semitic language Around 2340 B.C. Sargon their leader conquered the Sumerian city-states and established the first empire.

38 The Akkadian and Babylonian Empires The Akkadian Empire would fall around 2100 B.C., due to increased attacks from its neighbours. Independent city-states fought for control until 1792 B.C. when Hammurabi, the sixth king of the Amorite Dynasty came to power in Babylon. He gained control over the cities of Sumer and Akkad, creating a new Babylonian Empire.

39 Hammurabi s Empire

40 BUILDING EMPIRES IS A CONSTANT FEATURE OF HISTORY. WHAT MIGHT HAVE MOTIVATED SARGON TO CREATE THE FIRST EMPIRE? COMPARE AND CONTRAST THAT WITH THE MOTIVATIONS FOR THE BRITISH EMPIRE AND THE ATTEMPT BY THE NAZIS TO BUILD AN EMPIRE. Discussion Question.

41 The Code of Hammurabi One of Hammurabi s greatest achievements was the creation of a single unified legal code. The Code of Hammurabi was based on strict justice and penalties were severe. It dealt with criminal, commercial, legislative, and public law covering just about every aspect of people s lives.

42 The Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi is one of the world s most important early systems of law. It calls for harsh punishments against criminals. The principle of retaliation ( an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth ) is fundamental in Hammurabi s code.

43 Hammurabi s Code Punishments varied according to social status. A crime committed against a noble brought a harsher punishment than the same crime committed against a commoner. Hammurabi s code punished public officials who failed in their duties or were corrupt. It also had what we would call consumer protection provisions, for example, holding builders responsible for the quality of their work.

44 Hammurabi s Code If a building collapsed and killed someone, the builder was executed. Damages had to be paid to people injured. The largest group of laws in the code covered marriage and the family. Parents arranged marriages, and the bride and groom had to sign a marriage contract to be officially married.

45 Hammurabi s Code Hammurabi s code expresses the patriarchal nature of Mesopotamian society. Women had fewer privileges and rights than men. The code also enforced obedience of children to parents. A father could cut off the hand of a son who had hit him, for example.

46 HAMMURABI S CODE WAS APPLIED DIFFERENTLY TO DIFFERENT CLASSES OF PEOPLE. WHERE IN CANADIAN LAW IS THIS PRACTICE FORBIDDEN? GIVE REASONS FOR WHY THE UNEQUAL APPLICATION OF THE LAW IS UNJUST. IF YOU THINK IT IS JUST, EXPLAIN WHY. Discussion Question

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