Philosophy Quiz 12 The Age of Descartes

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1 Philosophy Quiz 12 The Age of Descartes Name (in Romaji): Student Number: Grade: / 8 (12.1) What is dualism? [A] The metaphysical view that reality ultimately consists of two kinds of things, basically, logic and ethics [B] A theory that claims humans should be thought of as metaphysical computers, basically, untouchable chips and processors [C] The metaphysical view that reality ultimately consists of two kinds of things, basically, mind and body (12.2) Traditionally, one of the most formidable problems facing any metaphysical theory of dualism is: [A] how a mind and a body can interact. [B] how a mind can think logically and non-logically. [C] how a mind can be immortal like a soul. [D] how a mind can be physical like the body. (12.3) From a scientific point of view, dualism lacks feasibility since it: [A] is most strongly associated with the French. [B] tends to be defended by religious thinkers. [C] claims that bodies are essentially extensions of mind. [D] does not add any new elements to the system. (12.4) Descartes held that thinking is part of the essence of the self. [A] True [B] False (12.5) Once we separate mind and matter, what is the problem? [A] How do we put them back together? [B] How do we define each one? [C] How do we doubt that either exists? [D] How do we make the mind physical and the body mental? (12.6) According to Descartes, the existence of God is more certain than the external world. [A] True [B] False 1

2 (12.7) Descartes is known as the Father of what? [A] Modern Philosophy [B] Dualistic Nature [C] Cardiology [D] Phraseology (12.8) Which of these is the first of Descartes most obvious truths? [A] God exists. [B] My mind exists. [C] I have no ideas. [D] The external world exists. 2

3 Philosophy Quiz 13 English Philosophy in the 17th Century Grade: / 6 (13.1) What is the view that knowledge is derived mostly from sense experience? [A] Skepticism [B] Rationalism [C] Empiricism [D] The Kantian critique of reason (13.2) What is the view that knowledge is derived primarily from reason? [A] Skepticism [B] Rationalism [C] Empiricism [D] The Kantian critique of reason (13.3) Idealism is the idea that what is real exists in our minds or thoughts rather than in material objects. [A] True [B] False (13.4) Hobbes argued that reality ultimately consists of: [A] French aristocrats [B] Extended bodies [C] Matter in motion (13.5) Tabula rasa means: [A] blank slate. [B] mind over matter. [C] cogito ergo sum. (13.6) What are Locke s primary qualities? [A] Qualities that exist independently [B] Vivid impressions [C] Discontinuity of dualism 3

4 Philosophy Quiz 14 Continental Philosophy in the Age of Louis XIV Grade: / 7 (14.1) What is to believe in God because you have relatively little to lose by doing so? [A] Theology [B] Atheism [C] Pascal s Wager [D] Anselm s Argument (14.2) What did Leibniz say about evil? [A] Evil is irrational. [B] Evil is to be enjoyed. [C] Evil is logically necessary. [D] Evil is necessarily logical. (14.3) Who said, We do not think that the whole of philosophy is worth an hour s labor? [A] Pascal [B] Spinoza [C] Malebranche [D] Leibniz (14.4) The key to Spinoza s philosophy was: [A] spamism. [B] fascism. [C] dualism. [D] monism. (14.5) Spinoza thought that we are slaves to our passions, but that we can be set free by: [A] faith. [B] grace. [C] intellect. [D] monads. (14.6) Malebranche believed that there is no way for human will to move matter. Matter moving was only: [A] an occasion for God to do the real causing. [B] a situation where God could conclude that humans are really free. [C] a condition of humans losing original sin. [D] an instance of the rational becoming stronger than the spiritual. 4

5 (14.7) Monads are: [A] the pieces that determine the end of the universe. [B] a gradual perception of the infinite universe. [C] immaterial, soul-like entities that perceive themselves. [D] the best way to explain human free will. 5

6 Philosophy Quiz 15 British Philosophy in the 18 th Century (15.1) Which philosopher was NOT an empiricist? [A] Locke [B] Berkeley [C] Socrates [D] Hume (15.2) Who thought that qualities only exist when directly perceived? [A] John Locke, through secondary qualities [B] George Berkeley, through esse est percipi [C] David Hume, through impressions (15.3) Esse est percipi means: [A] the real is the rational. [B] to be is to be perceived. [C] it is all one. Grade: / 5 (15.4) Who believed that causation was the product of the mind, not of the world? [A] Berkeley [B] Hume [C] Reid (15.5) Hume divided the contents of the mind into: [A] impressions and ideas. [B] will and reason. [C] grace and virtue. [D] faith and reason. 6

7 Philosophy Quiz 16 The Enlightenment Grade: / 5 (16.1) Which of these is NOT one of the characteristics of the Enlightenment? [A] The death of God [B] The divorce of faith from reason [C] The rise of modern science [D] Great optimism that reason can solve all our problems (16.2) Voltaire believed that God made the world because: [A] there was no other way to bring evil into the world. Without evil, there could be no absence of good. [B] making worlds is what Gods do. The definition of God is the builder of worlds. [C] he had no choice. It is a necessary and eternal consequence of God s existence. This explains why evil exists in the world. [D] a bored God is a creative God. Once God became bored, he decided to create the universe for human beings. (16.3) Montesquieu believed that there are three kinds of government, and that each is appropriate under different circumstances. What are the kinds of government? [A] republican, monarchical, despotic [B] republican, democratic, despotic [C] republican, monarchical, democratic [D] republican, anarchical, despotic (16.4) Who blamed the evil in the world on society? [A] Voltaire [B] Montesquieu [C] Rousseau (16.5) During the Enlightenment, people did what? [A] They desired security over excitement. [B] They desired excitement over security. [C] They desired faith over grace. [D] They desired grace over faith. 7

8 Philosophy Quiz 17 The Critical Philosophy of Kant (17.1) Pick the four options that describe a posteriori knowledge. [A] From what comes before [B] From what comes after [C] With reference to experience [D] Without reference to experience [E] Reason from logic to consequence [F] Reason from consequence to logic [G] This is the effect of a cause [H] Every event has a cause [I] Analytic (true by definition) [J] Synthetic (true by experience) (17.2) Pick the four options that describe a priori knowledge. [A] From what comes before [B] From what comes after [C] With reference to experience [D] Without reference to experience [E] Reason from logic to consequence [F] Reason from consequence to logic [G] This is the effect of a cause [H] Every event has a cause [I] Analytic (true by definition) [J] Synthetic (true by experience) (17.3) What is NOT a major source of knowledge? [A] Appeal to authority [B] Appeal to sense perception [C] Appeal to reason [D] Appeal to communication [E] Appeal to intuition Grade: / 4 (17.4) According to rationalists, the most important kind of knowledge is: [A] A priori [B] A posteriori 8

9 Philosophy Quiz 18 German Idealism and Materialism Grade: / 5 (18.1) The idea that human history is progressing toward a goal of fuller achievement of human freedom and reason is central to the philosophy of: [A] Fichte [B] Hegel [C] Marx (18.2) The ideas of Karl Marx are best described as: [A] Darwinian [B] Aristotelian [C] Hegelian (18.3) Idealism means: [A] to say that experience is caused by things in themselves. [B] to say that experience is created by the thinking subject. [C] to be dogmatic about an idea. [D] to be dogmatic about an experience. (18.4) According to Hegel, history develops by: [A] a spirit that is manifested in reality. [B] a reality that is manifest in a spirit. [C] a spirit that reflects on itself. [D] a reality that reflects itself on the world. (18.5) For Marx, alienation means what? [A] A condition where people accept the fact that they are alone in the universe and that there is nothing to be done about that [B] The belief that there is a group of beings not from this planet and that they have built a society to further the goals of human beings [C] The situation where humans realize that money is the most important thing and that workers must work to acquire more money [D] The state where people view as exterior to themselves something which is an intrinsic element of their own being 9

10 Philosophy Quiz 19 The Utilitarians Grade: / 5 (19.1) How do Mill and Bentham s viewpoints on pleasure compare? [A] Mill believes that there are different degrees of pleasure, while Bentham believes that pleasure is pleasure. [B] Both Mill and Bentham see pleasure very narrowly, proposing the quantity of pleasure is always equal regardless of what is providing the pleasure. [C] Both Mill and Bentham agree that the amount of pleasure is the same for each pleasurable activity, but that some pleasures are worth more than others. [D] Bentham believes that some pleasures are worth more than others, while Mill believes that the quantity of pleasure remains equal. (19.2) For Utilitarians, what is the best way to make a decision? It is to choose [A] the action that produces the best ratio of pleasure to pain for the individual. [B] the option which is best for the group, even if more pain results. [C] the option which produces the best overall pleasure/pain ratio. [D] that which provides lasting good for the group. (19.3) Mill defends Utilitarianism against accusations of godlessness by: [A] asserting that it is really the most deeply religious to believe that God wants his creatures to be happy. [B] showing that objections to Utilitarian wordly happiness is a sign of different religious groups fighting (i.e., Catholics vs. Protestants). [C] saying it is necessary to separate church and state. [D] arguing the secular happiness and religious happiness are the same. (19.4) According to Mill and other Utilitarians, women: [A] should be held in restraint for their own good and the good of men. [B] are strong because they have always been raised that way. [C] are naturally weaker and less capable than men. [D] need to be fostered and developed as they learn to live freely, as men do. (19.5) Who do critics of Utilitarianism say lose by making happiness the end? [A] The individual who is unable to attain happiness in this life [B] The individual who is not willing to sacrifice personal happiness [C] The individual who is willing to sacrifice personal happiness [D] The individual who is truly happy independently of others 10

11 Philosophy Quiz 20 Three 19th-Century Philosophers Grade: / 13 (20.1) In Kierkegaard s philosophy, the ethical stage of life is a lifestyle characterized by: [A] the pursuit of his one satisfaction and enjoyment. [B] a commitment to a life of moral duty that admits no exceptions in one s own favor. [C] a trust in God that is not based on reason but on a leap of faith. (20.2) In Kierkegaard s philosophy, the aesthetic stage of life is a lifestyle characterized by: [A] the pursuit of his one satisfaction and enjoyment. [B] a commitment to a life of moral duty that admits no exceptions in one s own favor. [C] a trust in God that is not based on reason but on a leap of faith. (20.3) In Kierkegaard s philosophy, the religious stage of life is a lifestyle characterized by: [A] the pursuit of his one satisfaction and enjoyment. [B] a commitment to a life of moral duty that admits no exceptions in one s own favor. [C] a trust in God that is not based on reason but on a leap of faith. (20.4) The view that meaning in life can be found in ourselves and our inner choices is associated with: [A] Schopenhauer [B] Kierkegaard [C] Nietzsche (20.5) What state of mind did Kierkegaard see as modern man s symptom of the awareness that the meaning of life cannot be found in external sources? [A] Misery [B] Confusion [C] Anguish (20.6) According to Nietzsche, the slave morality comes from Christianity. [A] True [B] False 11

12 (20.7) Which statement best summarizes the stand taken by Kierkegaard on the existence of Good and man s purpose in life? [A] God has devised a plan within which man s purpose lies. [B] Man must create God by his own choice in order to know the meaning and purpose of life. [C] Man must put his faith in God s purpose for man. (20.8) Which existentialist philosopher describes three stages through which a seeker of meaning in life passes? [A] Schopenhauer [B] Kierkegaard [C] Nietzsche (20.9) For Kierkegaard, the move to the religious stage is a commitment not to a rational principle but to a relationship with a person. [A] True [B] False (20.10) Who did Nietzsche think was a poor thinker because he was ugly? [A] Heraclitus [B] Plato [C] Socrates [D] Aristotle (20.11) The death of God means that the idea of God is no longer relevant to society. [A] True [B] False (20.12) Zarathustra proclaims the coming of whom? [A] The Superman [B] The Batman [C] The Aquaman [D] The Hulk (20.13) What did Nietzsche believe? [A] Life evolves to present conditions. There is no design. [B] God uses evil as therapy. [C] The problem with suffering is that God designed the universe that way. 12

13 Philosophy Quiz 21 Three Modern Masters Grade: / 4 (21.1) Darwin s theory of evolution raised problems for the traditional argument from design since: [A] according to Darwin, there is no design or order. [B] design and order could be accounted for naturalistically. [C] God cannot be all things, otherwise, God cannot exist. (21.2) The idea that man has no purpose is central to the ideas of: [A] Charles Darwin [B] John Henry Newman [C] Sigmund Freud (21.3) Newman s most central thought was: [A] faith is a reasonable act. [B] faith requires no reason. [C] all reason is based on faith. [D] only human will is based on faith. (21.4) Freud believed that: [A] our sexual impulses are fully conscious. [B] dreams tell us nothing about our unconscious thoughts. [C] patients talking to their doctors is a waste of time. [D] society is to blame for mental illness. 13

14 Philosophy Quiz 22 The Philosophy of Wittgenstein (22.1) Wittgenstein believed that philosophical problems are solved by: [A] considering things differently. [B] rationalizing things strongly. [C] coming to more logical conclusions. [D] relying completely on faith. (22.2) Wittgenstein said that we: [A] fail to see how language is spelled when written down. [B] lack an understanding of the language of other people. [C] do not fully understand the language that we use daily. [D] cannot appreciate the language that others use. Grade: / 2 14

15 Philosophy Quiz 23 The Process Philosophers (23.1) Whitehead thought that God s power was unlimited. [A] True [B] False Grade: / 8 (23.2) Which is NOT an attribute of actual process philosophy entities or actual occasions? [A] They are self-determined and intrinsically active. [B] They are fundamental substances and are the final real things of which the world is made up. [C] Individual actual entities may aggregate together to form larger societies. [D] They are interdependent and internally and externally related. (23.3) What role does God play in Whitehead s philosophy? [A] God is the final cause toward which all the actual occasions are striving. [B] God is the entity that provides forms of definiteness for the actual occasions, organizing the world but does not determine the path those things take. [C] God is the being that determines all of life for people, animals, plants, and inanimate objects by presenting forms of definiteness in specific ways. [D] Whitehead s philosophy is non-theist, so he plays no role. (23.4) Bergson believed that we should: [A] restrict free will to let process take control. [B] let process rule, but only when free will helps to shape the results. [C] define what process is before we let it take control. [D] allow free will to unfold automatically and in an unpredictable manner. (23.5) For Bergson, it is very important to be: [A] outside the process. [B] in the moment. [C] on time. [D] inside yourself. (23.6) According to Bergson, it is impossible to plan for the future because: [A] time presents unforeseen possibilities. [B] plans work out the way you expect anyway. [C] God will always change the results of your plan. [D] God cannot interfere with the plans of human beings. 15

16 (23.7) It was de Chardin who conceived of the: [A] Alpha Point. [B] Beta Point. [C] Gamma Point. [D] Omega Point. (23.8) For de Chardin, evolution: [A] can only be fully explained if God is the one creating evolution s power. [B] only partially explains why human beings have lost faith in God. [C] is not random, but is directional and unfolding in a meaningful way. [D] is the story of history that is based upon faith. 16

17 Philosophy Quiz 24 The Philosophy of Heidegger (24.1) Heidegger s most important question was: [A] What is Being? [B] What is Time? [C] What is Becoming? [D] What is Essence? Grade: / 2 (24.2) According to Heidegger, no one asks about Being because people thought that: [A] it is not as important as Becoming. [B] it is not an important question to ask. [C] the question was already asked. [D] no one could answer this question. 17

18 Philosophy Quiz 25 The Philosophy of Sartre Grade: / 3 (25.1) Sartre shares with Kierkegaard the idea that: [A] God has devised a plan within which man s purpose lies. [B] man must put his faith in God s purpose for man. [C] man must create God by his own choice in order to know the meaning and purpose of life. (25.2) Sartre shares with Kierkegaard the idea that: [A] meaning in life is based upon no one s free choices and commitments. [B] we must entrust ourselves to take a leap of faith to a higher power. [C] human beings are condemned to be free. (25.3) According to Sartre, to live in bad faith is to: [A] choose a conventional path in life. [B] choose a religious path in life. [C] refuse the anguish that goes along with meaning that one chooses in life. [D] refuse to answer to God for the sins that one has committed. 18

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