9.6 The Delhi Sultanate

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1 9.6 The Delhi Sultanate

2 1.Mamluk dynasty ( ); 2.Khilji dynasty ( ); 3.Tughlaq dynasty ( ); 4.Sayyid dynasty ( ); a 5.Afghan Lodi dynasty ( )

3 Sultanate of Delhi Most of the Islamic Rulers came either from Afghanistan or Iran Some of them have originally come from Turkey There had been several wars between AD between Afgan/Iran Sultans and Hindu Indian kingdoms Mohammed Ghori of Afghanistan established the Sultanate of Delhi in 1191

4 % of India Ruled Islamic Empires in India 100% 90% 80% 70% Maurya Gupta Empires of India Harsha Mughal British 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Nanda SaatVahana Kushana Pala Common Era Rashtrakuta Chola Sultaan

5

6 Influence of Islam in Medieval Time Islam rejects human, plant or animal forms of symbolisms Gave rise to Geometry and Algebra Islamic arts are the first form of abstract arts based on purely geometric design The most beautiful palaces were built during the Islamic periods Typical Islamic Art Taj Mahal, Agra, India Alhambra Palace, Spain

7 Delhi-based Muslim kingdom large parts of India 320 years ( ). ~1100, Mamluks already conquered Persia India by 1192 northern India (modern Pakistan) 1192, Muslim general Muhammed Ghor captured Delhi, India and started a dynasty

8 Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate first four = Turkic origin last = Afghan Lodi. Lodi dynasty replaced by Mughal / Mogul dynasty. Tamerlane in 1398

9

10 Mamluk ( Slave ) Dynasty Qutb-ud-din Aibak former slave first leaders had been slave soldiers (Mamluks). Many Hindus and Buddhists in northern India decided to convert to Islam first sultan of Delhi dynasty conquered large areas of northern India.

11 Delhi Sultanate founded by Turkic Mamluks employed by rulers of Afghanistan Early rulers had to defend north from attempted Mongol invasions Power derived from military highways, trade routes and the ability to control military and provincial governors Introduced copper & silver coins Destroyed some Hindi temples to build Mosques Many refugees arrived from Persia after the Mongol invasions bringing many skills. Islam in India

12 Mosque built in the early Sultanate Incorporated Islamic design into India and developed new features by adapting Indian features into its design. The minaret on the left is the tallest structure in medieval India Sultanate Mosques

13 Delhi Sultanate -> enthroned one of few female rulers in Islamic history Razia Sultana trained to lead armies & administer kingdoms refused to be called sultana because it meant "wife or mistress of a sultan". would answer only to title "Sultan." considered great monarch

14 only with reluctance, nobility agreed to her reign had not learned customary behavior of Muslim women contrary to custom dressed like a man showed her face (no veil) rode an elephant into battle at the head of her army Success = manipulate rebel factions against each other reign ends when nobles rise up against her

15 Khilji dynasty able to conquer most of central India failed to unite the Indian subcontinent. Delhi sultanate is also noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack from the Mongol Empire Not for long

16 Sultanate Expansion 14 th C Mongols try to invade 6 different times. In the early 14 th century the Sultan travels from the north after repelling the Mongols to the south to expand his kingdom. This conquest only lasts a very short time.

17 14 th Century Sultanate Taxes are not standardized between rulers and widely fluctuate causing hardship Peasants pay 1/3-1/2 of produce in taxes plus other types of taxes Rebellions in the countryside Sultans build canals and irrigation works to expand agriculture- didn t help much Ibn Battuta visits in the first half of the century. He is sent by the Sultan as a representative to China

18 14 th century Sultanate Sufi practice spreads in N. India love & devotion to realize God Bakti movement spreads also fundamental unity of all religions Persian language is used by elite Muslims in India Elite culture spurs greater trade although many farmers are hurt by tax policies Urbanization spreads Exports flourished Cotton & silk textiles Paper industry Leather making Metal crafts Carpet weaving Sultanate coinage in the 14th century

19 Sultanate in the 15 th Century Timur invades in 1398 Dehli Sultanate loses territory throughout the 1400 s Increasing rebellions led by the nobles Last ruler defeated in 1526 by invading Mughals.

20 Sultanate Legacy Protected India from being ravaged by the Mongols Maintained social separateness from Hindus Introduced new art and architectural styles into India Facilitated trade in the Indian Ocean due to elite culture demands Ultimately failed due to constant rebellions of Muslim nobles and Hindu peasants

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