The Great Encounter: American Indians Meet Explorers & Mountain Men

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1 Slide 1 CHAPTER 4 The Great Encounter: American Indians Meet Explorers & Mountain Men Slide 2 The Mood Just as different groups of Native American Indian people had displaced other groups who lived in the region, new groups and individuals entered their land to explore routes to California, trap beaver, and eventually to settle permanently. This interaction between the American Indians and the explorers and fur trappers on the Utah frontier might be called The Great Encounter. Slide 3 Timeline 1765 Juan Rivera crosses into present-day Utah Father Dominguez and Father Escalante enter Utah (The United States declares Independence from Britain). Early 1800 s Fashionable Europeans wore felt hats made of beaver fur Provost comes into the Uinta Basin. Jim Bridger winters in Cache Valley. Peter Skene Ogden arrives in the Utah region The first rendezvous is held on the Green River, Wyoming Jedediah Smith blazes a trail from Utah to southern California Spanish Trail used for trade Joseph Walker stops at the valley of the Great Salt Lake Robidoux builds first trading post in Utah s The trapping era ends Fort Bridger is built. John C. Fremont arrives in Utah Mormon pioneers arrive in the Great Basin John W. Gunnison and Howard Stansburry survey Great Salt Lake John W. Gunnison surveys a railroad route and is killed by Indians. Slide 4 European Explorers & Settlements Christopher Columbus Rediscovered the New World (1492) Hernando Cortés Conquered the Aztec (1519) Francisco Pizarro Conquered the Inca (1532) Early European Colonies St. Augustine (1565) Roanoke (1585) Lost Colony Jamestown (1607) Santa Fe (1607) Plymouth (1620)

2 Slide 5 Juan Rivera (1765) The Spanish Come To Utah Juan Rivera and his group crossed into what is now Monticello around 1765, reaching into what is now Moab. Rivera and his group may have been the first non-indians to explore Utah. Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Silvestre Velez de Escalante ( ) These Catholic priests, along with 12 Spanish colonials, a map maker named Miera, and others, were sent by the Spanish government to find a better route from Santa Fe to Monterey. Slide 6 Monterey Impossible Straight Route Intended Travel Desired Northern Route Santa Fe Slide 7 Dominguez and Escalante Expedition Purpose: Find a new and safe route to Monterey, California Left Santa Fe on July 29, 1776 Success: They did not accomplish their goal, having to return to Santa Fe before arriving at Monterey do to bad weather Returned to Santa Fe January 2, 1777 Traveled about 1,700 miles 5 most helpful participants: Bernado Miera y Pachecho, Don Juan Pedro Cisneros, Andres Muniz, and the two Timpanogots, Silvestre and Joaquin. Miera a retired military engineer who lived in Santa Fe, drew an influential map of the region, recommended sites for presidos, and provided measurements of latitude for the party. Don Juan, alcalde (chief administrative officer) of Zuni offered valuable judgments as the party progressed. Muniz an interpreter fluent in the Ute language, had accompanied Rivera on a 1775 expedition to the Gunnison River. Silvestre a leader in the Utah Valley settlement, guided the party as far as his home. Joaquin Only twelve Helped guide the party through its entire journey, the only Utah native to do so. Slide 8 Dominguez and Escalante Expedition Map

3 Slide 9 An extraordinary and tough journey Passed through many mountain ranges, including our very own Wasatch Mountains (near Mt. Timpanogos) Passed by Utah Lake Passed the Grand Canyon Slide 10 Unintended Results Help Others The results of the Dominguez-Escalante expedition were virtually all unintended. In spite of the padres' glowing description of Utah Valley, Utah remained on the northern fringes of the Spanish and Mexican Empires, unsettled by these Hispanic peoples. After the missionaries had returned, however, traders benefited from the trails they and Rivera had discovered. The German geographer Alexander Von Humboldt later found the Dominguez-Escalante journal. Publishing references to it, Humboldt left out Dominguez's name in the process, and he drew a map based on Miera's. Humboldt's work came to the attention of American path marker John C. Fremont. He commented on the padres' journal in his report of the expedition that took him to Utah. Fremont also named the Spanish Fork River in honor of the Hispanic explorers. From Fremont's writings, the Mormons who read the report knew of the Spanish explorations. Slide 11 The Rocky Mountain Fur Trade The Lewis and Clark Expedition ( ) opened the west, and indirectly sparked the Rocky Mountain Fur Trade. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, along with others led an expedition from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean (modern day Oregon) and back, documenting their journey, writing of new animal and plant life, as well as new Native Americans. They were looking to see if there was a large river that led all the way to the Pacific from the Midwest. Slide 12 The Rocky Mountain Fur Trade Fur Companies Many companies were formed in order to profit from the many furs from animals in the Rocky Mountain Region. They hired trappers to trap these animals. Trappers Mountain Men Free trappers, were mountain men that worked for themselves, trapping and hunting for their own gain and profit. Engagés, were mountain men that worked for a fur company, trapping and hunting for their company in order to make a profit for themselves and the company.

4 Slide 13 Examples Fur Companies St. Louis Missouri Fur Company Rocky Mountain Fur Company Hudson Bay Company Pacific Fur Company Northwest Fur Company American Fur Company Slide 14 Slide 15 Examples Peter Skene Ogden Jim Bridger Jedediah Smith James Beckwourth Etienne Provost Antoine Robidoux Joseph R. Walker Miles Goodyear Mountain Men in Utah Peter Skene Ogden One of the Captains of the Hudson Bay Company Kept a detailed journal of Northern Utah One of the earliest records of the area Trapped a lot in the Ogden Area Married twice to Native American women Slide 16 Jedediah Smith Proves that the Great Salt Lake is not part of the Pacific Ocean Gets mauled by a Grizzly Bear in South Dakota and gets his ear torn off Always read his bible Set the record for the most beaver pelts with 668 in a year Discovers the South Pass in 1824 First to travel Utah s length & width Got killed by Comanche Indians

5 Slide 17 Jim Bridger He and Provost were the first to see the GSL Rowed a boat down the Bear River into the Great Salt Lake and thought it was the Pacific Ocean Set up a trading post called Fort Bridger in the South Pass He would trade one fat cow for two or three thin cows Later he sold Fort Bridger to the Mormons in 1853 for $8,000 The Mormons burned the fort to the ground in 1857 during the Utah War Told Brigham Young and the Mormons not to go to Utah, but go to California Said he would give $1,000 to the first that could grow a bushel of corn in the Salt Lake area Slide 18 Fort Bridger in the South Pass Slide 19 James Beckwourth His dad was a slave owner and his mom was a slave in Virginia Moved with his family as a kid to Missouri He was taught by his dad to read and write Became a Mountain Man to avoid slavery and discrimination Became famous to the Native Americans because of his black skin Adopted by the Crow Indians Married a Crow chief s daughter Helped negotiate peace treaties between the Native Americans and USA Slide 20 Etienne Provost French Mountain Man that came to Utah via Mexico He and Bridger were the first to see GSL He and his men were the first non-indian to be attacked by Native Americans in Utah City of Provo & Provo River is named after him

6 Slide 21 Antoine Robidoux French Mountain Man that came to Utah via Mexico Built a Trading Post in the Uinta Basin Carved a French message in a rock Antoine Robidoux passed here November 13, 1837 to establish a house of trade at the Green or Uinta River Slide 22 Joseph R. Walker Spent very little time in Utah Mapped out a route to California Became the California Trail Married a Native American woman Slide 23 Miles Goodyear Built the oldest house in Utah Sold it to the Mormons Built Fort Buenaventura in Ogden Has a Mountain Men Rendezvous every Easter Slide 24 Government Explorers to Explore Utah John C. Fremont Assigned by the U.S. government to explore the western U.S. Explored a lot of Utah Led 5 expeditions west (3 went into Utah) Second & third trip had Kit Carson Carved a cross on Fremont Island Mapped out a lot of Utah and wrote detailed descriptions of the soil, animals, and conditions Said that Utah could be good if irrigated Brigham Young used his book to help decide where to go Many things in the west are named after him In Utah we have Fremont Island, Fremont River, Fremont Indians, Fremont City, Fremont High Served as senator to California & then governor to Arizona Ran for President of the United States but lost Became the first Republican candidate for President

7 Slide 25 Government Explorers to Explore Utah John Williams Gunnison Researched Utah to find the best way to California via railroad Got killed in southern Utah by Native Americans City of Gunnison is named after him John Wesley Powell Former science professor then Civil War Veteran Got his arm blown off during Civil War Explored the Green River & Colorado River These rivers have become a major source of water in the west Lake Powell is named after him

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