Living In Territorial Utah: culture, business, transportation, and mining. Timeline. Schools in Utah Territory

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1 Slide 1 Living In Territorial Utah: culture, business, transportation, and mining Chapter 8 Slide 2 Timeline 1850 The University of Deseret (U of U) opens. Utah s first newspaper, the Deseret News, is published Abraham Lincoln is elected U.S. President The Pony Express begins delivering mail The Pony Express ends. Eastern and western telegraph lines link at Salt Lake City. The Civil War begins in South Carolina The Civil War ends. President Lincoln is shot (May 10) Transcontinental Railroad joins in Utah The Salt Lake Tribune is established Salt Lake City Gas Company opens. St. Mark s Hospital opens Catholic Bishop Lawrence Scanlan comes to Utah Holy Cross Hospital opens. Westminster College opens Utah s first telephone call is made Utah s first electric light is demonstrated Free Public School Act is passed. Slide 3 Schools in Utah Territory The first schools in Utah were LDS Church schools Later, other religions developed schools to help the non-mormon children as well as to influence the Mormon children The Presbyterians, for example, started 36 schools for younger children and 4 academies for older children Some of the early Utah schools run by the Mormon church experimented with the Deseret Alphabet The Deseret Alphabet Phonetically friendly system of reading and writing

2 Slide 4 Utah s First Universities 1850 University of Deseret (University of Utah) Salt Lake City 1874 Timpanogos University (Brigham Young University) Provo 1875 Salt Lake Collegiate Institute (Westminster College) Salt Lake City 1886 Salt Lake Stake Academy, then LDS College and LDS High School, then LDS University (LDS Business College) Salt Lake City 1888 Agricultural College of Utah (Utah State University) Logan 1888 Dixie Academy (Dixie College) St. George 1888 Snow Academy (Snow College) Ephraim 1889 Weber Stake Academy, then Weber State College (Weber State University) Ogden 1897 Branch Normal School, then Branch Agricultural College, then College of Southern Utah (Southern Utah University) Cedar City Slide 5 Utah s First Universities Slide 6 Newspapers in Utah Territory The first Newspaper in Utah was the Deseret News, published in Later, in 1871, The Salt Lake Daily Tribune and Utah Mining Gazette started, later merging into The Salt Lake Tribune. This paper became the opposition voice in the territory.

3 Slide 7 Slide 8 The Pony Express In March 1860, western newspapers ran the following add: WANTED YOUNG, SKINNY, WIRY FELLOWS NOT over 18. Must be expert riders, willing to risk death daily. Orphans preferred. WAGES $25 per week. Slide 9 The Pony Express A new company called the Pony Express placed the ad The company had a bold plan to carry mail from Missouri to California in only 10 days At the time, it took months for mail to reach the West by ship or stagecoach The Pony Express built relay stations about every ten miles along the route.

4 Slide 10 The Pony Express Purpose: provide the fastest mail delivery between Missouri and California They also hoped to gain a million dollar government mail contract Date: April 3, 1860, to late October 1861 Mechanics: Relay of mail by horses and riders The Pony Express ran day and night, summer and winter Rider Relay: New riders took over every 75 to 100 miles Horse Relay: Riders got a fresh horse every 10 to 15 miles Speed: Horses traveled an average of 10 miles per hour. Riders: 183 men are known to have ridden for the Pony Express during its operation of just over 18 months. Horses: 400 horses purchased to stock the Pony Express route. Thoroughbreds, mustangs, pintos, and Morgans were often used. Slide 11 The Pony Express Stations: Approximately 165 stations Trail Length: Almost 2,000 miles Route: St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California. Through present day states of Kansas, Nebraska, northeast corner of Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, and California. Departure: Once a week from April 3 to mid-june Twice a week from mid-june, to late October Departures were from both the east and the west. Schedule: 10 days in summer. 12 to 16 days in winter. Fastest Delivery: 7 days and 17 hours between telegraph lines. Lincoln's Inaugural Address. Slide 12 The Pony Express Failures: Owners spent $700,000 on the Pony Express and had a $200,000 deficit The company failed to get the million dollar government contract due to the Civil War Successes: Improved communication between east and west. Captured the hearts and the imagination of people all over the world Longest Drive: Pony Bob Haslam rode 370 miles (Friday's Station to Smith Creek and back in present-day Nevada.) Cost of Mail: $5.00 per 1/2 ounce at the beginning. By the end of the Pony Express, the price had dropped to $1.00 per 1/2 ounce. Telegraph Completed: October 24, Official end of the Pony Express.

5 Slide 13 Pony Express Mochila Slide 14 Pony Express Monument just west of This Is The Place Heritage Park Slide 15 The Telegraph The electric telegraph is an outdated communication system that transmitted electric signals over wires from location to location that translated into a message. In 1830, an American, Joseph Henry ( ), demonstrated the potential of William Sturgeon's electromagnet for long distance communication by sending an electronic current over one mile of wire to activate an electromagnet which caused a bell to strike. It was Samuel Morse ( ) that successfully exploited the electromagnet and bettered Joseph Henry's invention. Morse invented a telegraph system that was a practical and commercial success.

6 Slide 16 Slide 17 The Railroads To Indians, the railroad or iron horse was often terrifying To miners and others in towns, the railroad was a God send, bringing supplies and people very quickly Railroads changed how people lived, their way of life Slide 18 The Transcontinental Railroad In 1863, two companies began a race to build the first transcontinental railroad A transcontinental railroad is one that stretches across a continent from coast to coast The Union Pacific Railroad started building a rail line westward from Omaha, Nebraska The Central Pacific Railroad began in Sacramento, California, and built eastward Both companies received government financial aid or subsidies, for the government felt the railroads would benefit the nation

7 Slide 19 Working on the Railroad Both companies had trouble getting workers Labor was scarce during the Civil War The work was hard and the wages low Mostly immigrant workers were hired, for they accepted low wages The Central Pacific brought in thousands of workers from China The Union Pacific hired newcomers from Ireland African Americans, Mexican Americans, and former Civil War soldiers also worked for each line Slide 20 Slide 21 A Daunting Task The Central Pacific had to carve a path through the rugged Sierra, Nevada The Union Pacific had to cut through the towering Rocky Mountains Snowstorms and avalanches killed workers and slowed progress At times, crews cutting tunnels through rock advanced only a few inches a day

8 Slide 22 Railroads Promote Growth The Central Pacific and Union Pacific met at Promontory, Utah, on May 10, 1869 Leland Stanford, president of the Central Pacific, dropped a solid-gold spike into a pre-drilled hole in the rail In doing so, he joined the two tracks and united the country The nation s first transcontinental railroad was complete Slide 23 Slide 24

9 Slide 25 Slide 26 Slide 27

10 Slide 28 Celebration With the Civil War fresh in their minds, people cheered this new symbol of unity. The words that were engraved on the golden spike expressed their feelings: May God continue the unity of our Country as the Railroad unites the two great Oceans of the world. Other railroads soon joined areas creating a new way of life, a new way of shipping, and a new way of traveling all in a faster, more comfortable way. Slide 29 New States Because people could travel to places easier, territories grew and were able to apply for statehood. Nevada (1864) Colorado (1876) North Dakota (1889) South Dakota (1889) Montana (1889) Washington (1889) Idaho (1890) Wyoming (1890) Slide 30 Golden Spike National Historic Site

11 Slide 31 Slide 32 Slide 33

12 Slide 34 Slide 35 Slide 36 Quiz (10 points) 1. For how long (in months) did the Pony Express last? (1 point) 2. What was the purpose of the Pony Express? (1 point) 3. What new invention made the Pony Express obsolete (unnecessary)? (1 point) 4. What university today, was the first in Utah? (1 point) 5. What newspaper was the first to be printed in Utah? (1 point) 6. In what year were both (the first newspaper and university) started? (1 point) 7. What two companies completed the transcontinental railroad? (1 point) 8. In what Utah city did the railroads meet? (1 point) 9. In what year was the transcontinental railroad finished? (1 point) 10. For what purpose was the Deseret Alphabet established? (1 point)

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